By Mary Ellen Snodgrass
This multicultural and interdisciplinary reference brings a clean social and cultural viewpoint to the worldwide historical past of meals, foodstuffs, and cultural alternate from the age of discovery to modern occasions. accomplished in scope, this two-volume encyclopedia covers agriculture and undefined, nutrients guidance and local cuisines, technology and expertise, foodstuff and well-being, and alternate and trade, in addition to key modern matters akin to famine aid, farm subsidies, nutrition protection, and the natural flow. Articles additionally contain particular foodstuffs equivalent to chocolate, potatoes, and tomatoes; themes comparable to Mediterranean vitamin and the Spice direction; and pivotal figures comparable to Marco Polo, Columbus, and Catherine de' Medici. detailed gains contain: dozens of recipes representing various old classes and cuisines of the realm; directory of natural meals and makes use of; and a chronology of key events/people in nutrients historical past.
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Additional resources for World Food: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Social Influence from Hunter-Gatherers to the Age of Globalization
During high productivity, food preparers prevented famine by dehydrating and smoking fish and venison, packing jerky with mint to discourage vermin, brining salmon and fermenting herring and salmon roe, leaching acorns for grinding into flour, and drying fruit leather on wood slabs or birch bark trays. Sedentary tribes froze salmon and cached camassia, Jerusalem artichoke, and yucca tubers in grass-lined pits. North Atlantic tribes tapped birch and maple trees for sap, which they crystallized into sugar cakes.
Louche, the milky emulsion in Greek ouzo, a liqueur distilled from anise, extended into an adjective used to describe debauched, risqué behavior. Simultaneous with the gin, pulque, and vodka industries, in the 1620s, Barbadian slaves at Holetown turned molasses into rum, a source of summery drinks. Healers used rum as a treatment for smallpox and a cleanser for corpses. Along with sugar, bottled rum boosted profits, with 102,000 gallons (386,000 liters) exported to Great Britain in 1884. In literature, rum fueled scenes of male debauchery and bar ditties in Robert Louis Stevenson’s pirate classic Treasure Island (1883).
In 1864, French explorer René Laudonnière summarized the ability of Timucua women of eastern Florida to climb trees and swim rivers while carrying their children. Even elderly females loved dancing at feasts. E. , evolved the dietary culture of the “three sisters”: beans, corn, and squash, three crops that thrived when planted together. Food studies of desert lands characterize a lifestyle devoted to survival. After service in Baja California from 1751 to 1768, Johann Jakob Baegert, a Jesuit missionary and author of Observations in Lower California (1771), compiled eyewitness accounts of the diet of Guaycura hunter-gatherers.