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Additional resources for Toxicological profiles - Acrolein
Studies regarding the respiratory effects of chronic exposure to acrolein in humans were not located in the literature. In the chronic exposure study in rats (Le Bouffant et al. 1980), occasional emphysematous areas were seen in the alveoli after 18 months of exposure to 8 ppm acrolein; however, the animals were only exposed to acrolein vapors for 1 hour/day, 7 days/week. 0 ppm acrolein 7 hours/day, 5days/week, for 52 weeks developed inflammation and epithelial metaplasia in the nasal cavity, with a few animals exhibiting exudation in the lumen (Feron and Kruysse 1977).
This result is supported by similar findings in rabbits treated orally during pregnancy (Hoberman 1987) and in rats after intermediate-duration exposure (king 1984). In contrast, no changes in the gastric mucosa were reported in rats (Long and Johnson 1988), mice (Long and Johnson 1989), or dogs (Long 1987) after chronic exposure to lower concentrations of acrolein. It is reasonable to assume that if acrolein is ingested by humans, it would cause severe gastrointestinal effects. No studies were located regarding hematological effects in humans after acrolein exposure.
3 Metabolism Because of the limited information available regarding the metabolism of acrolein in humans and animals after inhalation, oral, and dermal exposures, relevant data are presented below. In nonbiological cell-free systems, acrolein has been shown to form thiol ethers within seconds when reacted with glutathione or cysteine (Esterbauer et al. 1975, 1976). In cell systems in vitro, such as reacted with glutathione or cysteine (Esterbauer et al. 1975, 1976). In cell systems in vitro, such as cultured human bronchial cells and isolated cell preparations from rat liver and kidneys, acrolein has been shown to form conjugates with glutathione, cysteine, and/or N- acetylcysteine (Dawson et al.