Download Tissue Characterization in MR Imaging: Clinical and by H. P. Higer (auth.), Dr. med. H. Peter Higer, Dr. med. PDF

By H. P. Higer (auth.), Dr. med. H. Peter Higer, Dr. med. Gernot Bielke (eds.)

H.P. HIGER 1 within the 17th century humans dreamed a couple of computing device to dispose of evil spirits and obsessions, that have been regarded as the most resource of mis­ fortune and ailment. i'm really not going to query this method, simply because in a fashion it sounds moderate. They dreamed of a computing device that might reveal im­ a long time from the interior global of fellows that could be simply pointed out and named. someway those are the roots of MR imaging. in fact, we now view sickness from a unique standpoint yet our targets stay an identical, particularly to make illnesses seen and to aim to signify them with the intention to therapy them. This was once the cause of establishing a symposium on tissue characterization. approximately three hundred years later the scientific advent of MRI has nice strength for making this dream come precise, and that i desire that this symposium has con­ stituted one other step towards its consciousness. while Damadian released his article in 1971 approximately adjustments in T1 leisure instances among fit and pathological tissues, this used to be a milestone in tissue characterization. His effects initiated extensive learn in­ to MR imaging and tissue parameters. truly his encouraging discovery used to be not just the 1st but additionally the final for a very long time within the box of MR tissue characterization.

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Extra info for Tissue Characterization in MR Imaging: Clinical and Technical Approaches

Example text

The obtained curve corresponds basically with the theoretical expectations. However, more precise observation reveals that deviations occur. The measured points in the low pulse angle range can be fitted into a straight line, just as expected from theory, but there is an offset at the origin, which has no physical explanation. The reason for this effect is the use of the Fourier transform as a basis for calculation of the pulse angle in dependence on the column in the image. The spin system is not linear as assumed, if the Fourier transform is being used.

In fact, such development has been done for both the water/lipid distinction and diffusion/perfusion. Limitations For determining NMR parameters from acquired MR images, certain phenomena can interfere with the precision and accuracy of the calculated parameters. A summary of these is given in Table 3. Shown there are the physical causes, the manifestation of each, the NMR parameters most affected, and possible solutions to reducing the impact of the phenomenon. The first one shown, inadequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the acquired images, was in essence already discussed above with respect to theoptimization of the experimental technique.

Riederer NOISE IN T2 8 4 4 ~~~- 16 ~------------~ 16 4 6 8 Fig. 2. Plot of the variance in T2 estimation for unweighted and optimally weighted least squares fits 10 R (=T2fT) Tl Estimation Determination of the proper strategy for Tl estimation is potentially more challenging than for T2 estimation because there are more operatorcontrolled variables to select. These include the pulse sequences used, the TR or TI times for each, and the number of averages for each sequence. Additionally, one must factor in the relative cost of each sequence in terms of the required scan time.

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