By Themistius & Robert B. Todd
Physics publication four is certainly one of Aristotle's finest works, discussing position, time and vacuum. Themistius used to be a fourth-century advert orator and essayist, not just a thinker, and he inspiration that simply paraphrases of Aristotle have been wanted, simply because there have been already such complete commentaries. still, his paraphrastic commentaries are jam-packed with leading edge remark. in keeping with Aristotle, there isn't any such factor as third-dimensional area. A thing's exactly-fitting position is a floor, the interior floor of its quick atmosphere. One challenge that this created was once that the outermost stars, in Aristotle's view, don't have any atmosphere, and so no position. Themistius means that we would imagine rather than the neighbouring our bodies which they encompass as supplying their position. Aristotle observed time as whatever countable, and concluded that it relies for its life on that of awake beings to do the counting. Themistius is within the minority between commentators in disagreeing. Themistius consents with Aristotle in denying the lifestyles of vacuum. we can't imagine house previously empty of physique penetrates all through a physique inserted into it. If one extension may penetrate one other, says Themistius, a physique may perhaps penetrate a physique, simply because our bodies occupy areas exclusively in advantage of being prolonged
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Extra resources for Themistius : on Aristotle physics 4
90 That is because ‘in something’ has several senses, and so place will be in something, but not in place. For place, when used in its strict sense as the limit of the container,91 is in something (indeed in the body of which it is a part or limit), yet not in the sense of in a place. Health, for example, is in something (namely, in what is hot and cold), but  as a hexis;92 and heat and coldness are in something, but as an affection. 94 111,3 (210b31)95 This, then, will complete our statement of the problems.
Why ever so? Because when the vessel full of water154 is transported elsewhere, the water’s parts will act just like the whole of the water in the vessel. So just as the whole of the water that occupies its own extension moves together with the vessel that is being transported, so will each of the parts that occupies its own extension move together with the vessel. So when the amphora enters another place, it will obviously occupy an extension in between the extremities of the surrounding air – an extension of which the water will also be a part –155 and the parts of the water will also occupy it.
For it is not larger than it32 (for any part by which it extends beyond it contains33 none of it, though place depends  on this [containment]), but through being equal [in size]34 it is simply35 a surface. But if it is a place for the line, it will not differ from the line, and on receiving a surface will not differ from the surface, and by containing a point, is itself also a point, and, when it becomes the space for a body, it will become a body. 105,4 (209a14-18) (iii) In general terms, each thing that exists is either an element or consists of elements, whether it is said to be a body or an incorporeal.