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By Steven Collins

This comparative examine appears on the early improvement of biotechnology within the US and Japan. Drawing on fundamental and secondary assets it lines the historic roots of recombinant DNA know-how, discusses the tensions among rules and promotional regulations and identifies the foremost actors and techniques that introduced biotechnology in either international locations. constructing a number of strands of thought in fiscal heritage, technology and know-how coverage, the booklet proposes an easy version that relates the variations within the international locations' responses to adaptations within the availability of institutional, monetary and organizational assets had to commercialize the hot expertise.

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Additional info for The Race to Commercialize Biotechnology: Molecules, Market and the State in Japan and the US (Nissan Institute Routledge Japanese Studies Series)

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15 Finally, Nelson distinguishes technologies based on the relative importance of “tacit” versus “latent public” sources of knowledge. In some industries, especially those in which chemical composition is a central aspect of design, knowledge is easily reproducible, and hence more of a public good. In other industries, especially those in which products take the form of complex 24 Firms and national innovation systems systems, knowledge is localized, tacit, and thus transferable only at considerable cost.

I begin at the simplest level: that of the single entrepreneurial agent, which in most cases is a firm, though lone inventors and professor-entrepreneurs may also initiate the innovative response. Development of the model moves outward from the firm to encompass the broader range of supporting institutions at the sectoral and finally the national levels. I conclude by integrating firm, sectoral, and national level variables into a comprehensive explanatory framework. The firm as innovator Building on insights already discussed, I construct a theory of innovation that is both historical and comparative across nations and industries.

The concluding chapter pulls together the various strands of the argument. 2 Firms, technological regimes, and national innovation systems Introduction This chapter develops the conceptual framework for analyzing the emergence of commercial biotechnology in the United States and Japan. It begins from the premise that neither business organization and strategy nor research and industrial policies alone provide a satisfactory explanation of national variations in technological innovation. Rather we must examine the differences in the institutional, social, and political environments in which entrepreneurial agents and other organizations produce knowledge and apply it commercially.

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