By Steven L. Gersen Ph.D. (auth.), Steven L. Gersen PhD, Martha B. Keagle MEd (eds.)
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Additional resources for The Principles of Clinical Cytogenetics
This stage lasts only 1-2 h in most mammalian cells. Mitosis is the process by which cells reproduce themselves, creating two daughter cells that are genetically identical to one another and to the original parent cello Mitosis is itself divided into stages (Fig. 10). 24 Martha Keagle and Judith Brown MITOSIS Prophase Chromosomes are at their greatest elongation and are not visible as discrete structures under the light microscope during interphase. During prophase, chromosomes begin to coil, become more condensed, and begin to become visible as discrete structures.
All 46 chromosomes are matemally derived. NEOPLASIA The basic roles for using the nomenclature apply when describing the karyotypes associated with cancer. However, special situations, requiring additional guidelines, may arise in these cases. Therefore special ISCN definitions and roles have been devised for use with neoplasia. Clones A clone is defined as two cells that share the same abnormality or abnormalities, unless the change involves loss of a chromosome, in which case three such cells are required (due to the possibility of coincidental random chromosome loss).
2 f" •• ~ - n •• •• ~n~ ... i i •• .. H u~: • • ~" 13 o ~ "' .. ' 14 .. r. n", II 9 u H 'ii 17 18 ;; :. •• ••. _~ e~ 21 r .... "M~ '- '22 X ~ Y Fig. 4. A composite karyotype of G-banded chromosomes (left) along with the corresponding 1971 Paris Conference ideograms (right). some abnormalities in a more meaningful way. Other conferences then followed, with the latest held in Memphis in 1994. Descriptions of human chromosomes and their abnormalities utilize aseries of symbols and abbreviations. A partial list of recommended symbols and abbreviations in ISCN 1995 appears in Table 3.