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00 We make the same hypotheses as in the preceding sections. 9 percent (likewise, we assume the same total investment and increment in intermediary consumption). We also assume a system of constant prices, based on year one of the socialist model. 2. From its inception, the statist strategy is distinguishable from the socialist one in the following significant respects: — a full 50 percent of the peasantry’s income is forcibly appropriated by the state; in the Soviet Union, a tribute of this extraordinary magnitude was actually imposed on the peasantry between 1930 and 1960; — a part of this rural surplus is used to supplement urban incomes; total urban income is unevenly distributed—one-half accrues to the three-fourths of workers in the cities who have little or no skill and one-half to the skilled worker cadre; — what remains of the rural surplus in principle is accumulated (net supplementary accumulation).

Had China not opted for the Maoist strategy, it would be just another Bangladesh today: out of a probable population of some 600 mil­ lion, one-half would be living in a state of permanent hunger. The Chinese Model 49 T able 24. Fertilizer Consumption (in 1000s o f tons) Year Nitrogens 1957 1976 137 3200 Phosphates Potassiums 22 1840 — 200 Imports Total 270 1009 429 6249 But the achievement in which the Chinese can take special pride is having provided, in eighteen years (between 1957 and 1973), gainful employment in the rural sector for some additional 100 m illion able-bodied workers.

The dollar estimates of yearly income at which we arrived in our model—$126 for the rural masses (this is an average; incom e is, in fact, very unevenly distributed in the coun­ tryside), $280 for the urban working class (even more unevenly distributed, given the massive unemployment), and $1,125 for the Three Models 33 middle and exploiting classes (enough to purchase an impoverished version of a Western lifestyle)— are very close to those of India. Whereas the foundation of the Chinese model is an uncompro­ mising commitment to self-reliance, the Indian model reproduces and intensifies external dependence.

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