By Prof Stephen Ansolabehere et al
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Additional resources for The Future of Coal
Through the 1970’s and early 80’s, but they were at the limit of the then-available materials and fabrication capabilities, and some problems were encountered . These problems have been overcome for supercritical operating conditions, and supercritical units are now highly reliable. Under supercritical conditions, the supercritical fluid is expanded through the high-pressure stages of a steam turbine, generating electricity. To recharge the steam properties and increase the amount of power generated, after expansion through the high-pressure turbine stages, the steam is sent back to the boiler to be reheated.
The largest and most variable component of COE among the studies is the capital charge, which is dependent on the total plant (or unit) cost (TPC) and the cost of capital. 8 shows Coal-Based Electricity Generation 25 the min, max, and mean of the estimated TPC for each technology expressed in 2005 dollars. Costs are for a 500 MWe plant and are given in $/kWe net generating capacity. In addition to the variation in TPC, each of these studies used different economic and operating parameter assumptions resulting in a range in the capital carrying cost, in the O&M cost, and in the fuel cost.
In the shift reactors, CO in the syngas is reacted with steam over a catalyst to produce CO2 and hydrogen. Because the gas stream is at high pressure and has a high CO2 concentration, a weakly CO2binding physical solvent, such as the glymes in Selexol, can be used to separate out the CO2. Reducing the pressure releases the CO2 and regenerates the solvent, greatly reducing the energy requirements for CO2 capture and recovery compared to the MEA system. Higher pressure in the gasifier improves the energy efficiency of both the separation and CO2 compression steps.