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By Maria Plaza

Maria Plaza units out to investigate the functionality of humor within the Roman satirists Horace, Persius, and Juvenal. Her place to begin is that satire is pushed via causes, that are to a definite volume adversarial: to demonstrate humor, and to advertise a major ethical message. She argues that, whereas the Roman satirist wishes humor for his work's aesthetic advantage, his proposed message suffers from the ambivalence that humor brings with it. Her research exhibits that this paradox isn't just socio-ideological but additionally aesthetic, forming the floor for the curious, hybrid nature of Roman satire.

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He is an ‘egoistic monster’ mightily pleased with himself, devoid of any empathy for his victims. Thus in Kernan there is the overarching paradox of the ‘artless artist’, followed by four related tensions, which are born of the fusion of the persona’s two sides, the public and the private. It must be noted, however, that Kernan never sets up a formal system to delineate the tensions/paradoxes, and that he tends to merge them in his discussion. What is perhaps most important in his model is that he underlines the necessity of both the public and the private personality in a 26 Introduction functional satiric persona.

As is well known from the tradition which divides satire into two varieties74—one smiling (Horatian) and one indignant (Juvenalian)—the programme satire of Juvenal replaces the mention of risus with the mention of indignatio. Thus while a programmatic opening on humour seems to be lacking from Juvenal’s Wrst satire, Hendrickson has argued (1927) 72 The old idea—proposed in Persius’ vita—that v. ’), is unconvincing in its overdetermination, and currently out of favour. It is nevertheless defended as Persius’ original version in Kißel’s thorough discussion, with further references (W.

42 Introduction Wctional one, it is tempting to compare a statement by Cicero in his discussion of the rhetor’s use of humour, in De Oratore: est plane oratoris movere risum, vel quod ipsa hilaritas benevolentiam conciliat ei, per quem excitata est . . maximeque quod tristitiam ac severitatem mitigat et relaxat odiosasque res saepe, quas argumentis dilui non facile est, ioco risuque dissolvit. (De Or. 236, emphasis mine). yes, making the audience laugh certainly belongs to the domain of the orator, because merriment arouses goodwill towards him who has stirred it, .

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