By Karen R. Polenske
This serious addition to the starting to be literature on innovation comprises vast analyses of the institutional and spatial points of innovation. Written by means of prime students within the fields of financial geography, innovation reports, making plans, and know-how coverage, the fourteen chapters hide conceptual and size matters in innovation and appropriate know-how rules. The participants research how varied institutional elements facilitate or bog down the flows of data and information inside of and throughout corporations, areas, and countries. particularly, they supply insights into the jobs of vital associations akin to gender and tradition that are usually overlooked within the innovation literature, and exhibit the foremost function which geography performs within the innovation approach. associations and coverage measures which aid entrepreneurship and cluster improvement also are mentioned. the result's a comparative photo of the institutional elements underlying innovation platforms around the globe.
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Extra info for The Economic Geography of Innovation
I believe it is, because the spatial distribution of innovation is not well researched, and the contributors to this book are important analysts in the field of innovation and have made a tremendous contribution to thinking about spatial distribution issues. Innovation itself is important, for a number of reasons. According to Debresson (1996, p. ” Some people, and some regions, are poor and others are rich. If innovation does contribute to the creation of wealth, then its spatial distribution may help some of the poor people and regions to rise out of the poverty in which they live, or it may be one of the factors leading to a widening of the gap between the rich and Introduction 11 the poor.
If I install a computerized system for broiling steaks in my restaurant, I am inclined to announce it as an innovation. It is new for me, after all. If competitors already use computers for this purpose, Schumpeter might call it diffusion, but responders in a survey may not know about others who introduced the technology elsewhere. Often the distinction between innovation and diffusion is a matter of discretion: what if I use my computerized oven to broil fish? The Oslo Manual specifies that, to be counted as an innovation, a technological or process innovation should be new (or significantly improved) to the firm (it does not have to be new to the world) (OECD 1997: 31).
24 Anne P . Carter Schmookler used patent applications as a measure of innovative activity. His findings suggest that the business cycle – and investment in particular – drives innovation, rather than the reverse. However, patent applications may be an inappropriate proxy here. If, in fact, patent applications precede innovation significantly, or if a significant portion of innovations is not patented, the timing of patent applications misrepresents the timing of innovation. ), Schumpeter’s hunch might be confirmed.