By Walter . Freiberger
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However, if any property of a program that is invariant for all instances of execution and computable prior to THREE COMPUTER CULTURES 29 execution is defined to be syntactic, then binding relations are syntactic properties of lambda expressions. That is, the question of whether two symbols are instances of the same bound variable is a syntactic question although the “meaning” of the notion of binding is a subtle semantic question. The semantics of the lambda calculus can be characterized in a simple manner by a renaming rule that specifies that all instances of a given bound variable can be replaced by a new nonconflicting name, and by a reduction rule which specifies how bound variables can be replaced by their values [7, 631.
The backers of PL/I generally represented the technologists, while those favoring other approaches to language development represented the computer scientists. Languages like FORTRAN, ALGOL,and PL/I were primarily suited to the solution of numerical problems. Languages for nonnumerical computation were also being developed. The two list-processing languages LISPand IPLV  were developed in the late fifties, and a number of other list-processing languages such as SLIP  were developed in the early sixties.
The semantics of ALGOL60, just like the semantics of the lambda calculus, requires a binding rule to specify relations between bound variables and their points of binding. Since the block structure of ALGOL60 parallels that of the lambda calculus, the ALGOL60 binding rule establishes a correspondence between points of definition and points of use of bound variables that is similar to that of the lambda calculus. However, programming languages permit different forms of binding, such as parameter binding by value, name, and reference, which complicate the semantic interpretation of bound variables.