Download Taking Scope: The Natural Semantics of Quantifiers by Mark Steedman PDF

By Mark Steedman

In Taking Scope, Mark Steedman considers the syntax and semantics of quantifier scope in interplay with negation, polarity, coordination, and pronominal binding, between different structures. The semantics is "surface compositional," in that there's a direct correspondence among syntactic forms and operations of composition and kinds and compositions on the point of logical shape. In that experience, the semantics is within the "natural good judgment" culture of Aristotle, Leibniz, Frege, Russell, and others who sought to outline a psychologically genuine common sense without delay reflecting common language grammar.The ebook reunites the generative-transformational culture initiated by means of Chomsky--which perspectives the formal syntactic part as totally autonomous---with the older, strongly lexicalist, construction-based culture, which has sought to outline a extra lingistically obvious conception of which means illustration. Steedman bargains a logical formalism that relates on to the outside kind of language and to the method of inference and evidence that it needs to aid. any such normal good judgment, even though formal by way of definition, will be allowed to develop organically from attested language phenomena instead of be axiomatized a priori when it comes to any normal common sense. Steedman additionally considers the appliance of traditional semantic interpretations to functional normal language processing initiatives, emphasizing through the removal of conventional quantifiers from semantic formalism in want of units similar to Skolem phrases and structure-sharing between representations in processing.

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That is, while the availability of (for example) a bound-variable reading depends on the interpretation of the pronoun in question being in the scope of the relevant quantifier at the level of logical form, and while examples like (23) show that surface derivation imposes certain combinatoric constraints, the binding of the pronoun to the variable is not purely surface-compositionally mediated by the kind of syntactic mechanisms that support long-range dependencies such as those involved in relative clauses.

B. #Hisi mother likes Johni /Every boyi /a boyi . The present account follows Jacobson (2007), in assuming that the explanation for phenomena like crossover and those collected under Condition B should follow from the theory of pronominal anaphora itself, rather than via stipulative conditions on structural descriptions or competition across rival derivations. The above observations suggest the lineaments of a dynamic theory of anaphora of the general kind proposed by Kempson and Meyer-Viol (2002) or Shan and Barker (2006).

Part IV turns to techniques that allow efficient processing of the CCG, including the model-theoretically spurious ambiguities that arise both from CCG’s generalized notion of consituency, and from scope ambiguity itself. A short concluding chapter summarizes the proposal, including its relation to other syntactic and semantic formalisms, including TAG and DRT. Part I Natural Semantics In most cases where we use the “indefinite” article we have really something very definite in our mind. —Otto Jespersen, The Philosophy of Grammar (1924) Chapter 3 The Natural History of Scope It was a good-natured crowd, and a good time was had by all.

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