Download Source water quality for aquaculture: a guide for assessment by Ronald D. Zweig PDF

By Ronald D. Zweig

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These categories were originally developed for municipal water treatment and thus have no biological relevance. It should be noted that much of the concern about hardness in water treatment is with all the ions involved, while in aquaculture the concern is mostly with the calcium concentration. Effects. Calcium is the most important component of hardness to aquaculture. 7 Hardness tolerance levels for aquaculture Water classification Concentration (CaCO3 per liter) Soft 0-75 mg Moderate 75-150 mg Hard 150-300 mg Very hard > 300 mg Source: Sawyer and McCarty 1978.

5 and 9 is ideal. 5 species experience slow growth (Lloyd 1992, 64). At lower pH, the species ability to maintain its salt balance is affected (Lloyd 1992, 87) and reproduction ceases. At approximately pH 4 or below and pH 11 or above, most species die (Lawson 1995, 26). The pH can also indirectly affect fish and shellfish through its effects on other chemical parameters. For example, low pH reduces the amount of dissolved inorganic phosphorous and carbon dioxide available for phytoplankton photosynthesis.

Effects. The pH of water used in aquaculture can affect fish health directly. 5 and 9 is ideal. 5 species experience slow growth (Lloyd 1992, 64). At lower pH, the species ability to maintain its salt balance is affected (Lloyd 1992, 87) and reproduction ceases. At approximately pH 4 or below and pH 11 or above, most species die (Lawson 1995, 26). The pH can also indirectly affect fish and shellfish through its effects on other chemical parameters. For example, low pH reduces the amount of dissolved inorganic phosphorous and carbon dioxide available for phytoplankton photosynthesis.

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