By Y. Calisesi, R.-M. Bonnet, L. Gray, J. Langen, M. Lockwood
This ebook presents an up to date evaluate of the methods making a choice on the impact of sun forcing on weather. It discusses particularly the newest advancements concerning the function of aerosols within the weather method and the recent insights which may be received from the research of terrestrial weather analogues. The book’s constitution mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005.
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Additional resources for Solar Variability and Planetary Climates (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)
Usoskin, I. : 2004, ‘Unusual activity of the Sun during recent decades compared to the previous 11,000 years’, Nature 431, 1084–1087. Spruit, H. : 1982, ‘Effect of spots on a star’s radius and luminosity’, Astron. Astrophys. 108, 348– 355. Stuiver, M. and Quay, P. : 1980, ‘Changes in atmospheric Carbon-14 attributed to a variable sun’, Science 207, 11–19. Unruh, Y. , Solanki, S. : 1999, ‘The spectral dependence of facular contrast and solar irradiance variations’, Astron. Astrophys. 345, 635–642.
This allows a more secure estimate of the contribution of the ultraviolet wavelength range (λ < 400 nm) to total irradiance variations to be made. The main uncertainty results from the wavelength range between 300 and 400 nm, where the SUSIM data are not sufﬁciently accurate to give reliable estimates of the small irradiance changes. , shortward of 400 nm, although only 8% of the radiation is emitted at these wavelengths. This result suggests that more attention should be paid to the inﬂuence of the Sun’s varying UV radiation on the Earth’s atmosphere (see Haigh and Blackburn, 2006; Schmidt and Brasseur, 2006).
Does the very small variation of TSI imply that the Sun has little inﬂuence on climate change? Likely not, for in parallel with early TSI observations, rockets and satellites were also making observations of the very energetic radiation from the Sun (Friedman, 1961). This ultraviolet and X-ray radiation exhibits a much larger range of variation – factors of two to ten, and even more. The small variation observed in TSI is easily reconciled with the highly variable short-wave radiation because the X-rays and ultraviolet (UV) make up less than 1% of the total.