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By Evan Luard (auth.)

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The most important result of this increasing specialisation in modern societies is the consequence for individuals. Complex organisations impose more and more detailed roles on each category of worker, leaving less and less room for personal initiative. Increased interdependence means there is less chance for individual choice or spontaneity. Organisational procedures now become the rulers, as tyrannical as personal rulers before them. The number of marginally different roles that can be performed may be larger.

The third effect of the mass means of information is that news and opinions are increasingly nationalised. While there is very considerable variation in views and information presented in different states (and especially in different continents), there is only a marginal variation in those presented in the same states. This is reinforced by corresponding changes in the educational system, another major source of information that too is largely controlled by governments. Those living within the same country thus today normally have only marginally differing pictures of the world and often only marginally varying political opinions from each other.

The Take-over of Socialism by the State 35 Enormous welfare agencies are established, complex tax systems to redistribute the wealth obtained from individuals and corporations, and many other nation-wide institutions, investment boards that determine the distribution of investment. Each of these requires a vast administrative machine, which again is run by hugely powerful bureaucrats, only spasmodically overseen by ministers. In government and in industry alike, therefore, the growth in the scale of organisation, above all under a system of state socialism, gives rise to a proliferation ofbureaucracy.

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