By Matthew S. Harmon
Students have lengthy famous the significance of Paul´s citations from the Pentateuch for realizing the argument of Galatians. yet what has no longer been totally favored is the foremost function that Isaiah performs in shaping what Paul says and the way he says it, even supposing he cites Isaiah explicitly just once (Isaiah 54:1 in Galatians 4:27). utilizing an intertextual method of hint extra sophisticated appropriations of Scripture (i.e., allusions, echoes and thematic parallels), Harmon argues that Isaiah 49-54 specifically has formed the constitution of Paul´s argument and the content material of his theological mirrored image in Galatians. every one instance of Isaianic impact is positioned inside of its unique context in addition to its new context in Galatians. recognition is additionally paid to how those self same Isaianic texts have been interpreted in moment Temple Judaism, offering the bigger interpretive context during which Paul learn Scripture. the result's clean mild shed on Paul´s self-understanding as an apostle to the Gentiles, the content material of his gospel message, his studying of the Abraham tale and the bigger constitution of Galatians.
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Additional resources for She must and shall go free: Paul's Isaianic Gospel in Galatians
80) notes that Paul’s background as a Pharisee raised within the diaspora further suggests extensive engagement with the scriptures in Greek. , the following: Ellis, Paul’s Use of the Old Testament, 14-15; Lindars, New Testament Apologetic, 26-27; and Hanson, Studies in Paul’s Technique, 148. The challenge of exact wording would have been further complicated by the likelihood that he had memorized portions of scripture in both Hebrew and Greek, a difficulty noted by Ellis that often remains unmentioned.
Again, however, we must stress that it is often difficult to sharply distinguish between an allusion and echo, and at times our decision to label a specific example of Isaianic influence as an allusion or echo will be tentative. Those cases where influence is based on conceptual grounds and cannot be assigned distinctively to Isaiah will be categorized as thematic parallels. But it must be stressed that these categories are at best heuristic labels for describing various levels of influence. We should also note that inevitably in this study, some proposed allusions and echoes will seem probable, others possible, and still others unlikely.
119 Thus with thematic parallels we are dealing with ideas/concepts shared between texts that transcend precise verbal relationships. 121 118 Our discussion of thematic parallels is heavily indebted to Beetham, Echoes of Scripture, 24-27 and Ciampa, “Scriptural Language,” 41-57. 119 Richard D. Altick and John J. W. Norton, 1992), 110-11, cited in Beetham, Echoes of Scripture, 24. , T. L. Donaldson, “Parallels: Use, Misuse and Limitations,” EvQ 55 (1983): 193-210. He distinguishes between analogical and genealogical parallels.