By Mariko Namba Walter, Eva Jane Neumann Fridman
This two-volume reference is the 1st foreign survey of shamanistic ideals from prehistory to the current day. In approximately two hundred unique, readable entries, top ethnographers, psychologists, archaeologists, historians, and students of faith and people literature clarify the overall rules of shamanism in addition to the main points of broadly diverse practices.
What is it wish to be a shaman? Entries describe, zone via sector, the qualities, equivalent to diseases and goals, that mark an individual as a shaman, in addition to the educational undertaken by means of initiates. They aspect the costumes, track, rituals, artifacts, and medicine that shamans use to accomplish altered states of cognizance, speak with spirits, commute within the spirit global, and retrieve souls. in contrast to so much Western books on shamanism, which concentration narrowly at the individual's event of therapeutic and trance, Shamanism additionally examines the functionality of shamanism in society from social, political, and ancient views and identifies the traditional, non-stop thread that connects shamanistic ideals and rituals throughout cultures and millennia.
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Additional resources for Shamanism: An Encyclopedia of World Beliefs, Practices, and Culture (2 Volume Set)
Such motifs have sometimes, for example, been grafted onto the story of Njajaan Njaay, the hero of the Wolof people and founder of the thirteenth-century Waalo kingdom. Njaay was reputed to be a diplomat and fair dispenser of justice, who could unite peoples behind him as if by magic. Although stories of his miraculous return after many lost years abound, some stories (see Diouf 2001) now portray him as having been brought up by lions and then returning part-man/part-lion to unite the people of the Waalo kingdom, due to the wisdom and powers acquired from his experience with lions.
Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. ———. 1999. An Anthropology of Animism and Shamanism. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó. ARCHAEOLOGY OF SHAMANISM Shamanism is widely distributed and commonly (even if not universally) associated with huntergatherers. , Furst 1977; LaBarre 1980). Research on the archaeology of shamanism has been stimulated by these hypotheses as well as by interest in prehistoric religion more generally. Archaeologists typically investigate prehistoric shamanism using three types of evidence: (1) paleoethnobotanical data on hallucinogenic plants in the archaeological record; (2) iconography and symbolism; and (3) less commonly, other types of ritual or ceremonial remains.
In a great variety of cases, animals are thought to embody human spirits; this holds for actual living animals, as well as for the spirits of animals. In either case, whether through interpreting their movements or acting as a spirit medium, the medium interacts with human spirits in animal form. Alternatively, various responsibilities are attributed to animal spirits, and it is the job of the medium to know, if not to manipulate, these influences. Animals, then, consistently symbolize recurrent themes inherent in social and psychological life.