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By Grace Lee Boggs

This publication offers a concise and instructive evaluate of the revolutions of the 20 th century, with separate chapters at the Russian, chinese language, Guinea-Bissau, and Vietnamese revolutions, during which the authors search to extract the main classes from every one of those struggles and the specific direction taken via every one. In those and in a precis bankruptcy at the dialectics of revolution the authors provide an image of the imperative facets of Marxism, Leninism, Maoism, and the opposite currents of Marxism energetic within the revolutions of our instances. A moment part is dedicated to the USA, and starts with a survey of the category forces in American heritage from the cost of the unique 13 colonies to the current, with unique realization to the enslaved black inhabitants. Thereafter, the authors current their principles at the gadgets and technique of an American Revolution.Includes new advent by way of Grace Lee Boggs.

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If this present Hunanese autonomist movement were to be successfully established, but if its source were to reside not in the "people", but outside the "people", then I venture to assert that such a movement could not last long. ' 30 As for the broader context in which these statements were made, Mao and the co-authors of the proposal of 7 October 1920 for a constitutional convention summed up their views about the relation between political developments at the provincial and national levels as follows: The self-government law the Hunanese need now is like that of an American state constitution—China is now divided into many pieces, and we do not know when a national constitution will be produced; in fact, we are afraid that first 29 (No to the despotism of industry and commerce), ibid.

But at the same time Mao never hesitated, throughout his political career, to enter boldly into things, and to participate in concrete organizational work. The other question raised by Mao's writings during the Hunanese autonomist movement concerns the 'people' on whose behalf these activities were to be carried out, and from whom the initial impulse and inspiration for the movement were to come. By putting the term in quotation marks, Mao himself underscored its ambiguity. Were these the 'popular masses' (min-chung) of his 1919 article?

40 MAO TSE-TUNG S THOUGHT TO I 949 of reaction in the old society, and of the rural revolutionary forces in overthrowing them — he went on to argue against the importance of the cities: There are those who say that the rampant savagery exercised by the compradors in the cities is altogether comparable to the rampant savagery of the landlord class in the countryside, and that the two should be put on the same plane. It is true that there is rampant savagery, but it is not true that it is of the same order.

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