By Ana Cavalcanti, Augusto Sampaio, Jim Woodcock
The Pernambuco tuition on software program Engineering (PSSE) 2004 used to be the ?rst in a sequence of occasions dedicated to the research of complicated computing device technology and to the advertising of overseas scienti?c collaboration. the most topic in 2004 used to be re?nement (or rei?cation). Re?nement describes the veri?able dating among a speci?cation and its implementation; it additionally describes the method of discoveringappropriateimplementations,givena speci?cation.Thus,in oneway or one other, re?nement is on the center of the programming method, and so is the foremost day-by-day job of everyprofessionalsoftwareengineer. The summer time college and its court cases have been meant to provide an in depth instructional advent to the scienti?c foundation of this task. those complaints checklist the contributions from the invited academics. each one bankruptcy is the results of an intensive revision of the preliminary notes supplied to the contributors of the varsity. The revision was once encouraged by way of the synergy generated via the chance for the teachers to give and talk about their paintings between themselves, and with the school’s attendees. The editors have attempted to provide a coherent view of the subject through harmonizing those contributions, smoothing out di?erences in notation and process, and supplying hyperlinks among the lectures. We express regret to the authors for any error brought via our wide modifying. even supposing the chapters are associated in severalways, every one is su?ciently se- contained to be learn in isolation. however, Chap. 1 may be learn ?rst through these attracted to an creation to re?nement.
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Extra resources for Refinement Techniques in Software Engineering: First Pernambuco Summer School on Software Engineering, PSSE 2004, Recife, Brazil, November 23-December 5, 2004 Revised Lectures
When a change of data representation, as from bool to Z in class Flag, is involved, we have to resort to diﬀerent notions of reﬁnement and equivalence and their associated laws. The equivalence notion of class declarations used so far, cdsa =cds,c cdsc, is just an abbreviation for the program equivalence cdsa cds • c = cdsc cds • c, which simply corresponds to program reﬁnement in both directions: cdsa cds • c cdsc cds • c and cdsc cds • c cdsa cds • c Similarly, cdsa =cds,c cdsc corresponds to cdsa cds,c cdsc and cdsc which are abbreviations for the program reﬁnements just presented.
A. If a is declared in B , then the cast is not necessary for compilation, but once it is there, it cannot simply be eliminated, because a cast also has a run time eﬀect. At run time, if the value of a cast expression does not have the required type, its evaluation results in error, and the command in which it appears aborts. In the previous example, if the attribute a is in class B , although the cast could be eliminated regarding its static eﬀect, it still has a dynamic eﬀect when the object value of x happens to be of type B , but not of type C .
The next two laws allow us to change the type of a parameter; they are similar to Law 21. The ﬁrst law handles value parameters. Law 25 (change value parameter type). class C extends D ads meth m = val x : T ; pds ops end • b =cds,c class C extends D ads meth m = val x : T ; pds • b ops end provided (↔) T ≤ T and every non-assignable occurrence of x in expressions of b are cast with T or any subtype of T ; (←) (1) every actual parameter associated with x in ops, cds and c is of type T or any subtype of it; (2) every expression assigned to x in b is of type T or any subtype of T ; (3) every use of x as result argument in b is for a corresponding formal parameter of type T or any subtype of T .