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By Synge J. L.

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Moreover, he was able to determine — by the motion of galaxies on the periphery of the Coma Cluster — that it has about 400 times more mass than could be accounted for by the observable galaxies in the cluster. This became known as the missing mass problem, now known as dark matter. 1. Galaxies and Stars Galaxies first formed in the densest spots in the Universe. At these locations the merging process started earliest and proceeded fastest, and they are now rich in elliptical galaxies. They are, in fact, the centers of what observers call rich clusters of galaxies: giant regions, perhaps ten million light-years in radius, within which gravity has successfully reversed the cosmic expansion.

In contrast, because baryons do not change in mass, matter density decreased as their number density, 1/R 3 . As a consequence, radiation dominated the early universe, and matter later in time (see Box 2). Eventually, the small cosmological constant that Einstein introduced into his theory came to dominate the expansion. 4. If the cosmological constant is causing the universe to accelerate its expansion in the present epoch, why was it not always so? The cosmological constant was outweighed in importance in earlier epochs by gravity acting on radiation and mass.

For verification and critical assessment. . ” Meanwhile, Einstein had already 14 March 8, 2007 10:24 book Our Place in the Universe — Trim Size: 10in x 7in A Day without Yesterday Fig. 9 Albert Einstein and J. Robert Oppenheimer discuss their work at the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study. By this time Einstein has long been a world figure for his paper on General Relativity, published in 1915, his name synonymous with genius. It is the greatest single contribution to our understanding of gravity, and is the means by which we can trace the history of the universe and its possible futures.

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