By Augustin McEvoy, Tom Markvart, Luis Castaner
As a part of the starting to be sustainable and renewable power move, the layout, manufacture and use of photovoltaic units is expanding in speed and frequency. The Handbook of Photovoltaics should be a 'benchmark' ebook for these all in favour of the layout, manufacture and use of those devices.
The instruction manual covers the foundations of sunlight mobilephone functionality, the uncooked fabrics, photovoltaic structures, criteria, calibration, trying out, economics and case stories.
The editors have assembled a solid of internationally-respected participants from and academia.
The record is key examining for: Physicists, digital engineers, designers of platforms, installers, architects, policy-makers with regards to photovoltaics.
* a radical replace to the 'benchmark' book from a solid of commercial and educational overseas specialists guarantees firstclass info from a number of stakeholder perspectives
*Covers all issues PV- from rules of sunlight cells and their uncooked fabrics, to the install and layout of complete PV structures, together with criteria, trying out, economics and environmental impacts
* Case stories, sensible examples and studies at the most recent advances take the hot version of this notable source past an enormous selection of wisdom, into the world of actual international functions
Read or Download Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics. Fundamentals and Applications PDF
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Extra resources for Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics. Fundamentals and Applications
151): 1 1 5 2 1 KL φ 2 L L0 ð32Þ 54 Tom Markvart and Luis Castañer where L0 is the diffusion length in the unirradiated cell, φ is the particle fluence (integrated flux), and KL is a (dimensionless) diffusion-length damage constant characteristic for the material and the type of irradiation. The damage constant KL generally depends on the type of dopant, and even in single-junction cells, a different damage constant should therefore be introduced for each region of the cell. 1À1 MeV), which are stopped near the surface and may create nonuniform damage near the junction.
3 for a fuller discussion). 2 Surface Recombination Surface recombination velocity is an important parameter that affects the dark saturation current and the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Similarly to dislocations and planar defects such as grain boundaries, surfaces (and interfaces in general) introduce band of electronic states in the band gap that can be ascribed to broken (or strained) bonds and impurities. A complete characterisation of surface recombination must also take into account the surface charge, which may give rise to band bending.
The contribution to lifetime due to defects, when combined with recombination in intrinsic material, has been empirically observed to follow the equations ! 1:77 300 T ! 0:57 300 1 11:76 3 10 213 NA T 1 5 1 3 3 10 213 ND 2:5 3 10 23 1 5 2:5 3 10 23 ð29Þ where the first term in the brackets applies for recombination in intrinsic semiconductor. 0:72 1 T 231 2 5 2:78 3 10 n τ pUAuger 300 Although the concept of minority-carrier lifetime is most commonly applied to bulk recombination, a similar notion can be relevant for surface Semiconductor Materials and Modelling 53 processes.