By Frederik C. Krebs (Editor)
This booklet is meant to be a pragmatic consultant within the laboratory for the experimental solar-cell scientist even if she or he is concerned with synthesis, equipment training, processing, or machine characterization. important to all scientists operating virtually within the box, the publication provides the method of making a polymer solar-cell equipment starting with an outline of fabrics, together with how they're made and characterised, by means of how the fabrics are processed into units and flicks, and the way those are characterised. From there, the prestige of 2 rising fields of polymer sunlight cells are defined: degradation and balance and large-scale processing.Contents - Index - Preface - checklist of abbreviations - advent - The Polymer sunlight mobile - Characterization of natural sun Cells - Lifetime and balance experiences - Processing and construction of huge Modules - Outlook - References
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Extra info for Polymer Photovoltaics: A Practical Approach (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM175)
If an ozone treater is available, this is desirable after the cleaning step. If no ultrasonic bath is available, careful rinsing with pure water is advised. The best method involves cleaning the substrates in several different solvents starting with cyclohexane, chloroform, and acetone, and ending with 2-propanol or water. At this stage, it is common practice to apply a hole conducting PEDOT:PSS layer that improves the surface roughness of the substrate and improves and stabilizes the electrical contact between the transparent anode and the active layer.
15 μA cm−2 , respectively. This is rather low, but it is encouraging that the diblock copolymer with C60 performs best. 93 also tried to use the diblock copolymer approach to make materials with separated channels of hole and electron transporting domains (Fig. 26). A dialkyl substituted PPV domain was used as the hole conducting block, while a cyanovinylene terphenylene was presumed to be electron conducting. These two domains were coupled to a porphyrin system. As in the other studies of microphase segregated systems, rather low efficiencies were obtained for devices based on this material.
There are several factors that influence the bandgap of the polymer, for example, conjugation length, bond length alternation, intrachain charge transfer, intermolecular interactions, aromaticity, and substituents. The effect of an increased conjugation length, for example, is seen for poly(3alkylthiophenes), where the regioregularity of the alkyl groups are of great importance. 31–34 The low bandgap polymers described in the literature are based on fused ring systems or are copolymers with alternating donor and acceptor groups.