By American Water Works Association
Distribution of reclaimed water by utilizing a twin distribution approach is combining authorised perform, supplying major expense discount rates to utilities and delaying the necessity to enhance new water resources. Newly revised and re-titled, this guide presents tips on making plans and designing twin distribution structures for handled reclaimed (nonpotable) water to be used in purposes resembling commercial production, in addition to public parks and golfing direction irrigation. This booklet comprises up to date chapters on making plans, engineering layout for remedy of reclaimed water and distribution structures, and administration and operation of twin platforms.
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Extra info for Planning for the Distribution of Reclaimed Water
F. MacIntyre. 1987. Large Scale Groundwater Recharge Via Infiltration Basins in Orange County, Fla. AWWA Water Reuse Symp. IV. : American Water Works Association. Santa Cruz Water Department. 2000. Urban Water Management Plan, Santa Cruz City Water Conservation Office. Santa Cruz, Calif. L. 1984. Industrial and Commercial Reuse: Regional Economics and Institutions. AWWA Water Reuse Symp. : American Water Works Association. Schroeder, L. 1986/1987. Baltimore and Bethlehem Steel A 46-Year Partnership in Resource Reuse.
The topography of the area also impacts the cost of transporting the reclaimed water from the treatment location to the customer. Transporting the water through significant elevation changes impacts the pumping and storage considerations. Regulatory requirements are also an important consideration and establish minimum standards for treatment of reclaimed water based on the intended use. In addition, customers may have specific and unique water quality requirements that should be taken into consideration when planning a system.
The municipality should consult with the industry about water-quality needs and correlate that with the water quality of the reclaimed water. Based on the water characteristics and the “tonnage”of cooling towers at a particular facility, the industry can estimate its makeup water requirement. Cooling-wateruse is site-specificand depends not only on climate and water chemistry but also on the manufacturing operation itself. A facility that operates three shifts per day may have a substantially different water demand and water-use pattern than a facility that operates only one shift per day.