Download Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems: A Guide for by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie (DGS) PDF

By Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie (DGS)

Growth in photovoltaic (PV) production around the world keeps to extend. In parallel, acceptable criteria and certification schemes are being built. in this interval, transparent information is essential for integrating this know-how into operating practices of execs within the construction region. This bestselling advisor has develop into the fundamental instrument for any installer, engineer and architect, providing information and detailing each topic helpful for profitable venture implementation, from the technical layout to the criminal and industry problems with PV install. starting with source review and an overview of the middle parts, this consultant comprehensively covers procedure layout, financial research, install, operation and upkeep of PV platforms. the second one version has been absolutely up to date to mirror the cutting-edge in expertise and ideas and comprises: a brand new bankruptcy on advertising and marketing and the background of PV; new info at the photovoltaic marketplace; new fabric on lightning safety; a brand new part on construction built-in platforms; and new pix, facts, images and software program.

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Additional resources for Planning and Installing Photovoltaic Systems: A Guide for Installers, Architects and Engineers

Example text

The BSF is intended to passivate crystal defects on the surface and reduce recombination of charge carriers on the back of the cell. Like an electrical mirror, it bounces the charge carriers back inside the cell. 8 High-performance cells Using costly production processes, research laboratories have for many years been able to produce highly efficient crystalline silicon cells with efficiencies up to nearly 25 per cent. In these the electrical and optical losses are minimized. One example of the processes used to produce the high-grade wafers, which are used as a starting material, is the float-zone method.

Colour: blue (with AR). 2 CELL MANUFACTURER RWE Schott Solar. 61 Pulling a silicon ribbon in the string ribbon process Evergreen/Solarpraxis/DGS LV Berlin BRB POLYCRYSTALLINE S T R I N G R I B B O N S I L I C O N CELLS FABRICATION In the string ribbon process, two highly heated carbon or quartz fibres - the strings are pulled vertically through a flat crucible of silicon melt. The liquid silicon forms a skin between the strings and crystallizes into an 8cm wide silicon strip - the ribbon. The pulling part of the process runs continuously: the strings are wound off rolls and raw silicon is continuously added to the crucible while the growing ribbon is cut into rectangular wafers at its finished end: Efficiency: 12 per cent to 13 per cent.

The raw module describes the completely coated glass sheet with multiple cell strips connected in rows. When this is encapsulated with a laminating material (EVA) and protected with a second glass sheet, this is known as a module. The usual distinction between cell and module efficiency also does not transfer straightforwardly since thinfilm cells are not produced or measured individually. e. the photovoltaically active surface without edge and frame). Despite the relatively low efficiency, the energy yield can, under certain conditions, be quite considerable.

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