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By Franz Von Kutschera (auth.)

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54 Frege gives no criterion for identity of sense for proper names. But, as the following shows, one will have to interpret the concept of sense very narrowly, so that, apart from trivial cases of identity of sense such as arise from explicit definition, for example, different proper names as a rule also have different sense. 2, would nevertheless be very compatible with Frege's assertions. Frege now ascribes to predicates and sentences as well a double semantic function in analogy with proper names.

By way of contrast, the following objection to the simple form of realistic semantics is of fundamental significance: We usually understand by the meaning of a linguistic expression something based on the understanding of language alone, and independent of empirical data. In order to know what an expression means, I have to master the language to which it belongs; in doubtful cases I have to consult dictionaries and grammars, but not any knowledge of facts. Therefore the question of the synonymy, the identity of meaning of two proper names must be capable of being decided on the basis of knowledge of language alone.

This simple form of the copy-theory runs into some difficulties. There is already a certain difficulty in the fact that we cannot point to attributes and facts, as abstracta, in the same way as we can to concrete objects in establishing the name-relation. 27 If we want to say which attribute 'red' designates, we can not produce this attribute itself, not point to it as to a mountain, a village, a constellation; we can only point out some instances and counter-instances of the attribute: some red and some non-red things.

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