Even if the significance of the interaction of literature and philosophy in Germany has usually been tested inside of person works or teams of works by way of specific authors, little examine has been undertaken into the wider discussion of German literature and philosophy as an entire. This examine deals six chapters via major experts at the discussion among German literary writers and philosophers via their works.
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Extra resources for Philosophy and German Literature 1700-1990 (Cambridge Studies in German)
Wolff ’s entire theory of psychology is based on the imaginative power of the soul, which manifests itself in a passive state as sensation (‘Empﬁndung’). In the case of self-reﬂective entelechies (‘Geister’) the behaviour of the being in question is determined through the implementation of the imagination or other faculties of the active mind (intellectus agens). The seat of pleasure shifts for Wolff from animal instinct to the mental sphere. Perceptions of perfection give rise to pleasure while views of the imperfect and distorted cause displeasure.
Neither essentially material in nature nor subject to externally deterministic laws, the monad thus appears as the expression of the principle of self-realisation. Leibniz uses garden, plant and animal metaphors to illustrate this (§§, ). While every monad is different (§), operating like organic matter (§§ –) or germinating seeds (§), its nature is representative, and is thus a mirror of the universe as a whole. As such the individual monads are connected directly to God, ‘who is the cause of this correspondence between their phenomena’, and thus are indirectly connected to one another.
McCarthy aesthetic experience. Especially inﬂuential were Winckelmann and Lessing. Winckelmann re-established kalokagathia (‘the good and the beautiful’) as the anthropological ideal with its qualities of ‘edle Einfalt und stille Gr¨oße’ (‘noble simplicity and quiet grandeur’). Lessing identiﬁed the essence of aesthetic experience, whether in the ﬁne arts or belles lettres, as residing in movement either implicit or explicit, since nature is always changing. As a consequence, Lessing urges the artist to think ‘in transitions’ (‘transitorisch denken’), in keeping with the movement of nature (LW III, ).