By Gerold Siedler, John Gould, John A. Church
This e-book provides the perspectives of prime scientists on our wisdom of the worldwide ocean move following finishing touch of the observational section of the area Ocean move test. WOCE's in situ actual and chemical measurements including satellite tv for pc altimetry have produced an information set of exceptional scope and precision.This facts set presents the root for improvement of ocean and matched ocean-atmosphere move types used for knowing ocean and weather variability and projecting weather swap. The ebook publications the reader throughout the research, interpretation, modeling, and synthesis of those data.This ebook may be of worth to these attracted to the worldwide oceans, in weather variability and alter, and within the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon, quite oceanographers, meteorologists, and different weather scientists.
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Additional resources for Ocean Circulation and Climate: Observing and Modelling the Global Ocean
Winds directly drive the near-surface ocean layer. The rotation of the earth causes a depthintegrated Ekman transport to the right (left) of the wind in the northern (southern) hemisphere (Ekman, 1905). 8) obtained during WOCE and the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) programme. The dominant wind stress pattern produces a convergence of the Ekman transport in mid-latitudes and a divergence poleward of the peak in the westerly winds. 1). The continuing inability to adequately describe the wind field over the oceans significantly limits our ability to simulate and model ocean circulation.
In preindustrial times the Atlantic Ocean is thought to have transported carbon southwards, whereas recent calculations indicate there is now a northward transport of anthropogenic carbon in the Atlantic. 6 Climatic and oceanic variability In the previous sections, we have introduced the main physical processes important for understanding the ocean’s role in climate. We now briefly introduce a number of climate phenomena in which the ocean plays a significant role. For a more detailed description the reader is referred to other chapters in this book and the references cited.
3°C) from that of the mixed layer immediately below. Long-wave radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and by clouds and these in turn radiate long-wave energy out to space and back to the ocean where it is absorbed (again in the top millimetre). Clouds, in their many forms, are the most important factor regulating both the incoming solar and the long-wave radiation. For more than a century ships’ officers have documented marine clouds and over recent decades clouds have also been observed using satellites.