By Roland Winston; Juan C Miñano; Pablo Benítez; W T Welford
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Additional resources for Nonimaging optics
The angle q¢ in this medium would be arcsin (1/n), giving an angle p/2 in the air outside. the image plane is not usually fulfilled. Such an optical system, called telecentric, needs to be specially designed, and the requirement imposes constraints that would certainly worsen the attainable performance of a concentrator. We shall therefore assume that when a concentrator ends in glass of index n, the absorber or other means of utilizing the light energy is placed in optical contact with the glass in such a way as to avoid potential losses through total internal reflection.
19 Collecting all the rays from a concave mirror. , exit aperture). Then, by a well-known property of the circle, if the absorber subtends an angle 4qmax at the center of the circle, it subtends 2qmax at the ends of the mirror, so the collecting angle is 2qmax. The mirror is not specified to be of any particular shape except that it must reflect all inner rays to the inside of the exit aperture. 12) and the minimum value of a¢ is clearly attained when f = p/2. 20 The Schmidt camera. This optical system has no spherical aberration or coma, so, in principle, it could be a good concentrator for small collecting angles.
5) provided all the rays inside the collecting angle qi actually emerge from the exit aperture. Our use of the edge-ray principle suggests that this ought to be the case, on the analogy with image-forming concentrators, but in fact this is not so. The 3D CPC, like the cone concentrator, has multiple reflections, and these can actually turn back the rays that enter inside the maximum collecting angle. Nevertheless, the transmission-angle curves for CPCs as calculated by ray tracing approach very closely the ideal square shape.