Download Nearest-Neighbor Methods in Learning and Vision by Gregory Shakhnarovich, Trevor Darrell, Piotr Indyk PDF

By Gregory Shakhnarovich, Trevor Darrell, Piotr Indyk

Regression and type tools according to similarity of the enter to kept examples haven't been primary in functions concerning very huge units of high-dimensional info. fresh advances in computational geometry and computer studying, despite the fact that, may perhaps alleviate the issues in utilizing those tools on huge information units. This quantity offers theoretical and useful discussions of nearest-neighbor (NN) tools in laptop studying and examines desktop imaginative and prescient as an program area during which the advantage of those complicated tools is usually dramatic. It brings jointly contributions from researchers in conception of computation, laptop studying, and desktop imaginative and prescient with the targets of bridging the gaps among disciplines and offering cutting-edge equipment for rising applications.
The participants specialise in the significance of designing algorithms for NN seek, and for the similar class, regression, and retrieval initiatives, that stay effective whilst the variety of issues or the dimensionality of the information grows very huge. The booklet starts off with theoretical chapters on computational geometry after which explores how one can make the NN procedure possible in computer studying purposes the place the dimensionality of the knowledge and the dimensions of the information units make the naïve equipment for NN seek prohibitively pricey. the ultimate chapters describe winning functions of an NN set of rules, locality-sensitive hashing (LSH), to imaginative and prescient initiatives.

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For a metric measure space (U, D, μ), and a value ≥ 0, define μ by μ (x) = μ(B(x, )), and for a value v, let 1/v μ v v := μ dμ U 1/v v = μ(B(y, )) dμ(y) U . Nearest-Neighbor Searching and Metric Space Dimensions 35 That is, μ is a “smoothed” version of μ, and μ v is its Lv norm with respect to μ. For integral v ≥ 1, it is not too hard to see that for random points X1 . . Xv+1 with distribution μ, μ vv is the probability that X2 . . Xv+1 are all within distance of X1 . So μ vv is the probability distribution (as a function of ) for the vth nearest-neighbor distance of v + 1 points.

While AESA makes very thorough use of bounds that are implied by the triangle inequality, perhaps the ultimate in that direction is the work of Shasha and Wang[84], whose algorithm considers a matrix of upper and lower bounds on the distances among points in S ∪{q}, and finds the closure of the bounds implied by the distance evaluations. The set of evaluated distances gives a semimetric, or nonnegatively weighted undirected graph. The triangle inequality gives an upper bound on the distance between two sites by way of the shortest path in the graph, and a lower bound by way of such upper bounds and evaluated distances.

The quantity log2 C(U, ) is called the -entropy or metric entropy, a function of . This measures the number of bits needed to identify an element of the space, up to distortion . 3, the elements of the cover could constitute a codebook for an n-quantizer with n = C(U, ). Such a quantizer would need log2 n bits to transmit an approximation to a member x ∈ U, such that the worst-case (not expected) distortion D(x, f (x)) is no more than . A subset Y ⊂ U is an -packing if and only if D(x, y) > 2 for every x, y ∈ Y .

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