By Michael Nosonovsky, Bharat Bhushan
Multiscale Dissipative Mechanisms and Hierarchical Surfaces covers the swiftly constructing subject matters of hierarchical surfaces, roughness-induced superhydrophobicity and biomimetic surfaces. The learn in those themes has been progressing speedily within the fresh years because of the advances within the nanosciences and surfaces technological know-how and thanks to power functions in nanotechnology. the 1st in its box, this monograph offers a accomplished evaluation of those matters and provides the historical past advent in addition to fresh and new leads to the area.
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Extra resources for Multiscale dissipative mechanisms and hierarchical surfaces : friction, superhydrophobicity, and biomimetics
Using numerical computations, these models conclude that for typical roughness distributions, such as the Gaussian roughness, for both elastic and plastic materials, the real area of contact is almost linearly proportional to the load . 10) where E ∗ is the composite elastic modulus of the two bodies . Note that σ is the vertical and β ∗ is the horizontal roughness parameters with the dimension of length. The smoother the surface (higher the ratio β ∗ /σ ), the larger Ar . Physically, the almost linear dependence of the real area of contact upon the normal load in this case is a result of the small extent of contact.
D Normalized energy difference of the two equilibrium states, W z0 /W , as a function of the normalized elastic modulus, α = Ez0 /W  Consider a solid continuum deformable surface in contact with a rigid cylinder with the van der Waals adhesion force acting between them (Fig. 4(a)) and the separation distance z. The cylinder presents an asperity in contact with a substrate. 4) 36 3 Mechanisms of Dry Friction, Their Scaling and Linear Properties Fig. 4. 5) where y is the vertical displacement of the point (individual spring), z is the distance between the point and the rigid asperity, z0 is the equilibrium distance, and E is the elastic modulus (Fig.
Friction force is not a fundamental force of nature because it is a result of the action of the electromagnetic and exchange forces between the atoms, which are in principle reversible. For an ideal system of perfectly rigid bodies with potential electric forces acting between the atoms, there would be no energy dissipation and therefore no friction. Real systems, however, are imperfect and involve elastically and plastically deformable as well as brittle bodies; rough, chemically active, and inhomogeneous surfaces; and reversible weak and irreversible strong adhesive bonds.