By Gennaro Chierchia
This self-contained creation to ordinary language semantics addresses the main theoretical questions within the box. The authors introduce the systematic learn of linguistic that means via a series of formal instruments and their linguistic functions. beginning with propositional connectives and fact stipulations, the ebook strikes to quantification and binding, intensionality and stressful, and so forth. To set their technique in a broader standpoint, the authors additionally discover the interplay of which means with context and use (the semantics-pragmatics interface) and tackle a few of the foundational questions, specially in reference to cognition more often than not. additionally they introduce many of the so much obtainable and engaging rules from fresh examine to provide the reader a little the flavour of present paintings in semantics. The association of this re-creation is modular; after the introductory chapters, the ultimate fabric may be lined in versatile order. The e-book presupposes no history in formal good judgment (an appendix introduces the fundamental notions of set concept) and just a minimum acquaintance with linguistics. This variation contains a mammoth quantity of thoroughly new fabric and has been not just up-to-date yet redesigned all through to augment its user-friendliness.
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Extra resources for Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics
However, it is possible that some member of the family entails B. Sentence (31a), for example, not only presupposes (31e); it also entails (31e). If (31a) is true, then (31e) must also be true. The negation, (31b), also presupposes (31e) but does not entail it. The implication to (31e) is defeasible; that is, there are contexts in which it can be defeated, contexts in which (31b) is asserted yet (31e) is not assumed to be true. We might take (33) as a discourse context that defeats the implication from (31b) to (31e).
Exercise 2 Consider the following: (1) a. That John was assaulted scared Mary. b. Mary is animate. c. John was assaulted. d. That John was assaulted caused fear in Mary. (2) a. That John was assaulted didn't scare Mary. b. Mary is animate. c. John was assaulted. d. That John was assaulted didn't scare Mary. (3) a. John didn't manage to get the job. b. It was kind of hard for John to get the job. c. John didn't get the job. In each of these examples, the a sentences presuppose and/or entail the other sentences.
John cheated on the exam. (7) a. If John discovers that Mary is in New York, he will get angry. b. Mary is in New York. (8) a. Seeing is believing. b. If John sees a riot, he will believe it. 3 Referential connections and anaphoric relations Consider the sentences in (39). (39) a. She called me last night. b. Did you know that he is a Nobel Prize winner? c. I had a terrible fight with that bastard yesterday. Each of the italicized expressions is used to refer to someone, to pick out an individual about whom something is being said, but a pointing gesture or a nod or some similar nonlinguistic means may be needed to indicate who this is.