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Additional info for Mass Spectrometry: Clinical and Biomedical Applications
For effective mass separation, an ion must spend enough time in the quadrupole field, because the greater the number of oscillations, the greater the mass resolution. Therefore, the velocities of the ions entering the quadrupole field must be kept low. This condition is achieved by producing the ions at low accelerating potentials (typically <100 V); however, a lower accelerating potential means poor transmission of ions from the source. Nevertheless, the overall sensitivity of quadrupole mass analyzers is higher than that of magnetic sector instruments because no slits are used, resulting in higher transmission along the rods.
Thus, significant differences are expected in the low- and highenergy cm spectra. Collision activation also yields charge permutation reactions, some of which are endothermic and observed only in the high-energy regimes. 38) These reactions are diagnostic of the structural differences between the ions. 38) has been used in conjunction with a novel technique called neutralization-reionization MS, in which source-formed ions are first neutralized in an FFR and then ionized using collision activation (87).
The image current) that contains frequency components characteristic of each ion. By applying a Four- 32 Chapter 1 ier transform, this time-domain signal is converted to a frequency-domain signal to provide a mass spectrum. The important features of an FfMS are high detection efficiency, high resolving power, high mass range, high scan speed, multichannel analysis, the possibility of higher-order MS/MS analysis, and low dynamic range. However, to obtain good resolution and sensitivity, the pressure inside the cell must be low to avoid ion-molecule reactions and scattering of the ions.