By Stanley Moore
Booklet by way of Moore, Stanley
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Additional resources for Marx on the Choice between Socialism and Communism
To support his prediction that socialist economies will develop into communist economies, could he have produced arguments which conformed to the requirements of scientific socialism? Or would the attempt have plainly exposed his inability to reach a communist conclusion from the starting point of historical materialism? The plausibility of the standard explanation has been decisively weakened by publication of manuscripts Marx left unpublished during his lifetime-notably The German Ideology and The Critique of the Gotha Program.
It recognizes no class differences, because each individual is simply a worker like the rest; but it tacitly recognizes unequal productive capacities, as natural privileges. 16 Suppose we accept the contention that inequality of incomes is unfair. Must we then accept Marx's remedy? His alternative to inequalitarian socialism is communism, where incomes no longer exist. A second alternative is equalitarian socialism, · where all workers receive the same income. Some of Marx's predecessors and contemporaries-the Saint-Simonians, for example-advocated the inequalitarian socialism he describes.
1 a Civil society is for Hegel-as capitalist society is Capital 61 for Marx-both a realm of commodity exchange ( V eriiusserung), whose economic tendency is increasingly to pit the poor against the rich, and a realm of alienation ( Entiiusserung), whose metaphysical characteristic is the opposition of existence and essence, appearance and· substance. For Hegel, subordination of civil society to the political state mediates, in the sense of reconciling, the sociallension between poor and rich as well as the metaphysical tension between appearance and substance.