Download Macmillan Dictionary of Biotechnology by J. Coombs PDF

By J. Coombs

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Biuret test A biochemical test that produces a violet colour on addition of sodium hydroxide and a 1 percent copper sulphate solution to a sample of protein. The reaction is the basis of a qualitative test for protein and when quantified provides a useful colorimetric method. bivalent Two homologous chromosomes that become paired during meiosis. black smoker A deep sea hot vent. Bacteria have been found associated with such vents that can survive under pressure at temperatures of over 300'C. blastocyst The embryonic stage of mammals that consists of about 64 cells (the outer trophoblast cells and the cells of the inner cell mass) and that implants itself into the uterine wall.

Mushrooms, toadstools and similar bodies). The cells contain histamine and the granules contain heparin. They comprise about 50 percent of the white cells in human blood. batch culture A discontinuous system used for culturing microorganisms, waste treatment or manufacturing products of value, characterized by a single loading or inoculation into fresh medium at the start of the process and a single harvesting stage at the end, usually when the substrate has been exhausted. Organisms grown in batch systems generally show a sigmoid growth curve, undergoing exponential growth for a few generations following an initial lag phase.

The smallest phage contain only three genes coded for on single-stranded RNA. Larger DNAcontaining bacteriophage such as T4, which has £. 2 x 108 daltons and carry over 60 genes on a doubled-stranded DNA genome (which code for structural components of the phage) wound inside the head. Infection occurs after the phage becomes attached to the bacterial surface and the tail core is forced through the wall by contraction of the sheath. The nucleic acid is then injected into the bacterium through the hollow tail.

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