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Extra info for Logic and Language in the Middle Ages. A Volume in Honour of Sten Ebbesen
In A. Maierù and L. ), Medieval Theories on Assertive and Non-Assertive Language (Florence: Olschki, 2004), pp. 83–86. 27 Boethius, De differentiis topicis, ed. -P. Migne, PL 64 (Paris: Migne, 1860), col. 1174d8–9. 28 Boethius, De differentiis topicis, col. 1183a10–11. 29 argumentatoris] arg(u)m(en)tatis ut videtur A. 30 actionis super lineam, arg(u)m(en)t(ati)o(n)is in textu A. 42 yukio iwakuma est ex eo quod orationem tanquam instrumentum, quo fit illud officium, demonstravit. Per orationem enim exercetur actio talis ut per instrumentum suum, scilicet explicatio argumenti quae argumenti est demonstratio facta per orationem.
Non est igitur verum utrasque, 3 id est adfirmationem negationemque, et simul mentiri. 18b26 Quae ergo, inquit, contingunt inconvenientia haec sunt et huiusmodi. 6 Si quis dicat vel in his quae universalia sunt 7 et universaliter praedicantur vel in his quae singularia 8 in propositionibus enuntiantur unam necessario 9 definite esse veram definite alteram falsam, talia illum, 10 inquit, inconvenientia consequentur et alia similia, hoc 11 scilicet dicens de superioribus argumentis, in quibus 12 ostendebat omnia ex necessitate contingere si quis 13 unam veram definite alteram diceret definite mendacem.
31 definiendique] q(uae) diffinie(n)di A. 32 definitur] diffinat(ur) ut videtur A. 33 inductione] i(n) diccione A. alberic of paris on mont ste geneviève 43 The fifth and last question of text 31 is an artificial one: whether the following valid syllogism nullus homo sedens stat, sed Socrates est homo sedens, ergo Socrates non stat is true or false, when Socrates happens to stand up before the conclusion is made and the conclusion becomes false. This is a counter-argument against Abelard’s view that valid syllogisms are always true.