Download Lignin and lignans as renewable raw materials : chemistry, by Francisco G. Calvo-Flores, José A. Dobado, Joaqu?n PDF

By Francisco G. Calvo-Flores, José A. Dobado, Joaqu?n Isac-Garc?a, Francisco J. Mart?n-Mart?nez

As obviously happening and considerable resources of non-fossil carbon, lignin and lignans supply intriguing percentages as a resource of commercially invaluable items, relocating clear of petrochemical-based feedstocks in favour of renewable uncooked fabrics. Lignin can be utilized at once in fields akin to agriculture, farm animals, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer undefined, or it may be chemically changed for the fabrication of strong point and high-value chemical compounds similar to resins, adhesives, fuels and greases.

Lignin and Lignans as Renewable uncooked fabrics offers a multidisciplinary review of the state of the art and destiny clients of lignin and lignans. The publication discusses the starting place, constitution, functionality and purposes of either kinds of compounds, describing the most assets and values of those items as carbon uncooked materials.

Topics lined include:

• Structure and physicochemical properties
• Lignin detection methods
• Biosynthesis of lignin
• Isolation methods
• Characterization and amendment of lignins
• Applications of transformed and unmodified lignins
• Lignans: constitution, chemical and organic properties
• Future perspectives

This booklet is a complete source for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and engaged on new probabilities for the appliance of renewable uncooked materials.

For additional information at the Wiley sequence in Renewable assets, stopover at www.wiley.com/go/rrs

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Extra info for Lignin and lignans as renewable raw materials : chemistry, technology and applications

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Only carbon–oxygen bonds: β-O-4′ , α-O-4′ , and 4-O-5′ . • Carbon–carbon and carbon–oxygen bonds: β-5′∕α-O-4′ , β-β′∕α-O-γ′ . 2 Percentage of total linkages present in softwood and hardwood lignins Percentage of total linkages (%)a Linkage type ′ β-O-4 5-5′ β-5′ β-1′ α-O-4′ 4-O-5′ β-β′ a Values Dimer structure Phenylpropane β-aryl ether Biphenyl and dibenzodioxocin Phenylcoumaran 1,2-Diaryl propane Phenylpropane α-aryl ether Diaryl ether β-β-linked structures Softwood Hardwood 45–50 18–25 9–12 7–10 6–8 4–8 3 60 5 6 7 7 7 3 from ref.

36] suggested, in 2003, a model for hardwood lignin based on poplar wood. 21). On the other hand, several acylated units have been detected in many hardwoods, for example, p-hydroxybenzoates (PB) in poplars [37] or acetylated units. All these data agree with the complexity and variability of lignin, and therefore, the softwood and hardwood lignin models are only approximations to the linkage types and their approximate relative nature and frequencies. 3 Herbaceous Plant Models The first studies on lignin in herbaceous plants have shown that it presents greater variability according to the species, the part of the plant, and also the isolation method.

About a half of them, (48 740), have been published in the past 14 years, reflecting the rise of lignin. A closer analysis of the literature shows that 69 500 are scientific articles, 15 200 are patents, 380 are PhD dissertations, 4500 are reviews, and 95 are books. 1 shows the exponential growth of interest on lignin. 4 Thus, lignin is what is popularly called a hot topic. In the same way, the term “lignan” yields 6800 entries, from which 6000 are articles, 577 are patents, and only 4 correspond to books.

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