By David H. Jonassen
This e-book presents a finished, up to date examine challenge fixing study and perform over the last fifteen years. the 1st bankruptcy describes adjustments in sorts of difficulties, person ameliorations between problem-solvers, in addition to the area and context during which an issue is being solved. Part one describes six forms of difficulties and the tools required to resolve them. Part two is going past conventional discussions of case layout and introduces six various reasons or services of circumstances, the construction blocks of problem-solving studying environments. It additionally describes tools for developing circumstances to help challenge fixing. Part three introduces a couple of cognitive talents required for learning instances and fixing difficulties. ultimately, Part four describes numerous tools for assessing challenge fixing. Key good points comprises: instructing concentration – The ebook isn't really simply a overview of study. It additionally offers particular research-based recommendation on the right way to layout problem-solving studying environments. Illustrative situations – A wealthy array of circumstances illustrates the best way to construct problem-solving studying environments. Part two introduces six assorted features of circumstances and likewise describes the parameters of a case. bankruptcy Integration – Key theories and ideas are addressed throughout chapters and hyperlinks to different chapters are made specific. the belief is to teach how other kinds of difficulties, instances, abilities, and checks are built-in. writer services – A prolific researcher and author, the writer has been discovering and publishing books and articles on studying to unravel difficulties for the past fifteen years. This e-book is acceptable for complicated classes in tutorial layout and expertise, technology schooling, utilized cognitive psychology, considering and reasoning, and academic psychology. educational designers, in particular these inquisitive about designing problem-based studying, in addition to curriculum designers who search new methods of structuring curriculum will locate it a useful reference software.
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Extra info for Learning to Solve Problems: A Handbook for Designing Problem-Solving Learning Environments
As indicated in the Introduction, these variables represent another dimension of problem solving that is beyond the scope of this book and my expertise. What Is the Eﬀect of Domain Knowledge on Problem Solving? Cognitive researchers agree that the learner’s prior domain knowledge is among the most important determinants of problem-solving ability (Greeno, 1980; Hayes, 1989; Rittle-Johnson & Alibali, 1999). However, all of that research was conducted using well-structured problems. With all problems, it is not just quantity of knowledge possessed by problem solvers but also the quality that matters.
In each of these “problems,” there is a speciﬁc method of reasoning that will yield the most eﬃcient solution. It is up to the learner to discover that method. Research has shown that the ability to solve these problems does not transfer to other kinds of problems (Hayes & Simon, 1977; Reed, Ernst, & Banerji, 1974). Logic problems can be decidedly more complex than these. Popular card games such as bridge or hearts and board games such as checkers and chess are more complex forms of logic problems.
Design problems often require the designer to make judgments about the problem and to defend them or to express personal opinions or beliefs about the problem, so ill-structured problems are uniquely human interpersonal activities (Meacham & Emont, 1989). Generic design processes include articulating the problem space, specifying functional requirements, applying prior knowledge, analyzing constraints, selecting a solution, constructing a model or artifact, and optimizing the solution. Because design is so domain or context speciﬁc, these processes assume many diﬀerent forms.