By Henri Lammens
In this ebook, initially released in 1929, Lammens is essentially all for the matter of Mohammad’s character and prophetic profession – one of many imperative problems with Islamic historical past. He argues that Mohammad’s profession has to be thought of in the context of the city and mercantile society of 17th century Mecca and rejects the concept Islam used to be mostly the construction of a nomadic atmosphere.
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Additional resources for Islam: Beliefs and Institutions (Routledge Library Editions) (Volume 5)
622. The Hijra marks in Muhammad's career a no less interesting change; it started the political evolution of Islam; the Prophet became the ruler of a State. In the old Arab law, the Hijra did not merely signify rupture with his native town, but was equivalent to a sort of declaration of war against it. The Mekkan guild were under no misapprehension. Up to that time the watchword for Muhammad's disciples had been to ‘Stand fast' in the midst of contradictions; the jehad was a spiritual war. At Mekka the period of action began; they were enjoined to take up arms until Islam should have gained the ascendency, and the ‘infidels be brought low and forced to pay the tribute' (Qoran 9, 29).
Otherwise they would not have been able to resist the temptation to improve, by means of equivalents readily furnished by the lexicon, the poor rhymes terminating the verses. They would not have scattered broadcast through the collection, sometimes in the course of the same Sura, groups of verses which have a logical connection. They would have tried to delete or tone down the principal repetitions and tautologies which make its bulk unwieldy. Revision after the author's death would have modified the verses relating to Zainab (Qoran 33, 37), and brought into agreement the differing versions of the same prophetic legend.
97, I), brought about the conversion of this serious-minded man. Disgusted with the crude fetishism and materialism 26 ISLAM BELIEFS AND INSTITUTIONS of the Quraishites, he embraced monotheism and belief in the dogma of the resurrection. He found himself in agreement on these points with the Jews and the Christians, and being persuaded that if there exists only one God, there can be only one revelation, from which it is impossible that the Arabs should have been excluded, he felt himself called to preach these eternal truths amongst his compatriots.