By Andrew Majda
In response to graduate classes taught on the Courant Institute, those lectures describe the houses and instability of stratified flows, rotating shallow water idea, the idea of dispersive waves, the restricting dynamics of strongly stratified turbulence, the Boussinesq equations, and fast-wave averaging for geophysical flows. Annotation
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The potential of reducing demand by introducing water-efﬁcient appliances and ﬁxtures is enormous, and at the consumer level will reduce both water and energy bills. For example a 120-room hotel that replaced toilets, showers, taps and urinals with new water-efﬁcient systems during its refurbishment achieved a 47% reduction in its water use. What was also very interesting was the high level of customer satisfaction with this sustainable approach (Brandes, 2006). 4 Adoption of water demand management The importance of including WDM as part of the overall water supply management programme is crucial.
Key issues include high water demand associated with excessive outdoor water use, lack of opportunity to reuse grey and white water, or harvest rainwater due to poor building design, reduced groundwater recharge by stormwater unable to percolate back into the ground due to widespread impermeable surfaces, and ﬁnally erosion and ﬂooding due to inadequate stormwater management. 13 Breakdown of water usage for an average US family. 2 all land use and planning decisions are assessed for impacts on the catchment and water supplies (USEPA, 2006).
Although extremely costly to retroﬁt in existing homes, they are easily incorporated into new houses. For most homes in the UK rainwater harvesting could supply enough water for toilet ﬂushing, washing clothes and watering the garden, which represents currently half the water used by most households. 14). For all water utilities leakage control is an on-going and costly battle. e. 0 reduce leakage), it is clear that much more could be done to reduce leakage. For example, currently the life-expectancy of distribution pipes is approximately 100 years; however, accelerating the replacement programme would signiﬁcantly reduce the occurrence of leaks (Environment Agency, 2006).