By Emmon Bach
This ebook is an creation to the present advancements in model-theoretic semantics, which has develop into a vital a part of the paintings in theoretical linguistics over the past decade. the writer examines the version constitution of Montague’s conception after which offers gildings in this easy version which have been of specific value within the previous couple of years: generalized quantifiers, the advent of extra constitution within the area of people, houses as primitive parts within the version, occasions and comparable ’smaller’ international like entities. not anything is presupposed approximately wisdom of the mathematical and logical instruments utilized in formal semantics, and Bach provides the casual with no less than formalism.
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Additional info for Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics
Conditionals are just one example of what have been called world-creating contexts. Others include not only medals (as we have seen) but language about dreaming, imagining, wishing, trying, and so on. They all bring us issues about transworld identification (what David Kaplan, [I believe], dubbed "trans-world heir-lines"). One interesting problem that arises when discussing the issues of transworld identification is illustrated by a sentence like this one: 15. If I had really been twins, I would have been a lot happier!
The one kind of complex expression is the Formula, divided into simple or atomic formulas and complex formulas. But there are other expressions in the language that, as yet, do not have their own categories; they are just introduced by way of rules: -, Ú, &, ", $, (, ). Now let us compare PC to a natural language like English. First of all, in natural languages there are many more categories: nouns, noun phrases, verbs, verb phrases, adjectives, adjective phrases, articles, demonstratives, adverbs, prepositions and postpositions, sentences, and for each of these categories and others I have not mentioned various subtypes, not to speak of all the grammatical affixes, particles, and on and on.
7. If Socrates is a human and all humans are mortals, then Socrates is mortal. In PC, we can introduce a new symbol and a corresponding meaning rule: < previous page page_37 If you like this book, buy it! next page > < previous page page_38 next page > Page 38 R7. If F and G are formulas, so is (F ® G). S7. (F ® G) is true iff F is false or G is true. (From example S7 you can see that we can state the truth conditions for the formulas constructed with in terms of negation and disjunction, that is, not and or.