By Ralph Messing
Immobilized Enzymes for commercial Reactors goals to lead the engineer and scientist alongside the trail towards the commercial program of immobilized enzymes. it is vital to spot the risks and pitfalls that may be encountered, not just within the preliminary study efforts, but in addition in the course of the ultimate engineering stages of a advertisement software. every one contributing consider an immobilized enzyme method might be scrutinized by way of the authors with a purpose to accomplish the general ambitions.
This booklet contains 10 chapters, with the 1st being an advent to and normal heritage of immobilized enzymes. the subsequent chapters cross directly to speak about easy enzymology; controlled-pore glasses for enzyme immobilization; companies; immobilization through adsorption and inorganic bridge formation; immobilization by way of covalent attachment and through entrapment; features of unfastened vs. immobilized enzymes; immobilized coenzymes; layout and operation of immobilized enzyme reactors; and purposes of immobilized enzymes.
This booklet should be of curiosity to practitioners within the fields of chemistry and engineering.
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Extra resources for Immobilized Enzymes for Industrial Reactors
In both cases the measurement of weight changes indicate a one to one replacement of OH by Cl, and a complete dehy dration of the glass surface. 2 2 2 o SURFACE REACTION WITH AMMONIA A Si-Cl bond on the surface of porous glass is unstable in the presence of ammonia, and reacts as follows : ι ι H -Si - Cl + 2NHo » -Si + NH,C1. I -J \ I H- H Peri (23) reports that -Si - N H groups are rela tively stable towards water vapor, but heating of the glass in oxygen at 600°C causes oxidation of the surface species and reformation of the surface silanol groups.
56 IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES FOR INDUSTRIAL REACTORS Ι00 90 80 CL fCPG-IO 120-200 MESH / 70 ω 60 LU 50 cr ω CO 4 0 Lu / /cPG-IO /200-400 MESH / / PG-IO 80-120 MESH 5 25 ο: ΰ- 3 0 20 10 0 10 15 20 2 ± 30 35 ml/cm / min LINEAR FLOW CHARACTERISTICS Fig. 19. Linear flow characteristics of controlled-pore glass as a function of particle size. VII. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS To answer questions concerning compressive strength and abrasion resistance of porous glasses, an experimental approach was taken (24).
On cooling, separate isolated borate regions are formed -- enclosed in the mass of silica (11,12). This protected dis tribution of the borate regions in the glass makes it less soluble in a leaching medium, and during leaching, a high percentage of B2O3 may remain in the porous glass. The borate phase, however, is generally soluble in acids, whereas the high-silicn phase is not. Thus the borate rich phase may be preferentially leached out of the structure 40 IMMOBILIZED ENZYMES FOR INDUSTRIAL REACTORS Fig.