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Additional resources for Ieee Std 1100-2005 Ieee Recommended Practice For Powering And Grounding Electronic Equipment
With only one end connected, transient or steady voltages appear at the open terminal. These conditions sometimes cause data-transfer problems during transient events such as surge currents or voltages in ground conductors. Typical equipment symptoms of a referencing problem are temporary data hangs, slowdown of data transfer, multiple retries and permanent lockups, or in the worst case, I/O damage. However, susceptibility varies between electronic equipment models and designs because of differences in upset thresholds, dependence on stable ground reference, and degrees of data line isolation.
One example of such ambiguities occurs when attempting to summarize data from different surveys. For instance, two surveys have been widely cited (Allen and Segall [B1] and Goldstein and Speranza [B7]); each was aimed at defining the quality of power available for the equipment of concern to the authors. As a result, each author categorized the disturbances according to the criteria significant to that equipment, including the threshold below which disturbances are not recorded by the instrument.
1 Stray currents and voltages related to isolated/insulated grounding techniques To recognize the presence of stray ground currents and related voltages, look for symptoms. Stray ground currents usually exceed the normal mA-level leakage on the ground conductor expected from various connected load equipment. When these currents flow, the normal wiring impedance leads to stray voltages. Conditions that cause stray currents are sometimes transient (as opposed to continuous). For example, stray ground currents come from an ESD to a metal enclosure, faults in wiring or equipment, and capacitive coupling from nearby circuits when equipment is energized or a surge current is in the area.