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By Kevin M. Hiscock, Victor F. Bense

Hydrogeology: rules and perform presents a complete creation to the learn of hydrogeology and the importance of groundwater within the terrestrial aquatic setting.

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Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 193. A. (1997) Global Hydrology: processes, resources and environmental management. Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow. E. ) (2004) Theme issue: groundwater – from development to management. Hydrogeology Journal 12(1). Price, M. (1996) Introducing Groundwater, 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall, London. HYDC01 12/5/05 5:44 PM Page 16 16 Chapter One Groundwater development of the Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain The Quaternary Aquifer of the North China Plain represents one of the world’s largest aquifer systems and underlies extensive tracts of the Hai river basin and the catchments of the adjacent Huai and Huang (Yellow) river systems (Fig.

The principal directions of anisotropy correspond to the maximum and minimum values of hydraulic conductivity and are usually at right angles to each other. The primary cause of anisotropy on a small scale is the orientation of clay minerals in sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments. In consolidated rocks, the direction of jointing or fracturing can impart strong anisotropy at various scales, from the local to regional. Combining the above definitions, and as shown in Fig. 7, it is possible to recognize four possible combinations of heterogeneity and anisotropy when describing the nature of the hydraulic conductivity of a formation.

16 To relate the fluid potential to the hydraulic head measured by Darcy in his experiment (Fig. 3), Fig. 13 demonstrates that the fluid pressure at position P in a column containing porous material is found as follows: P = ρg ψ + Po eq. 17 where ψ is the height of the water column above P and Po is atmospheric pressure (the pressure at the standard state). 17: eq. 14 P = ρg(h − z) + Po eq. 18 HYDC02 12/5/05 5:37 PM Page 32 32 Chapter Two Fig. 14 Condition of pressure head, ψ, for the unsaturated and saturated zones of an aquifer.

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