Download Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part I: by Dick F Swaab PDF

By Dick F Swaab

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Additional resources for Human Hypothalamus: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Part I: Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Series Editors: Aminoff, Boller and Swaab)

Example text

G. , 1990). By means of quantitative immunocytochemistry, we not only confirmed the increased amount of NPY peptide in the infundibular nucleus with protracted illness, but also found that the amount of NPY mRNA went up. In addition, we observed that agouti-related peptide was increased during the course of illness (Fig. , 2002). , 2002). The gravity of the disease, too, is of great importance. During serious illness, profound changes may occur in the thyroid hormone metabolism known as non-thyroidal illness.

1996). , 1998). The GA size can be determined either with the help of specific antibodies or by electron microscopy. g. cell or nuclear size measurements. Neurotrophin receptors also give an impression of metabolic changes. 5). e. , 2000c; Chapter 8d). Another indication of a change in neuronal activity can be obtained from receptor studies. The ratio of the 4 Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) Sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) = preoptic nucleus = intermediate nucleus = interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH)-1, D14?

5). , 1980). 5) are indeed the basis for the sex difference in neurological or psychiatric diseases has still to be established. , 1999). 1). 1 are related to changes in catecholaminergic neurons, which are influenced, during development, by direct somatic effects of sex-specific genes (Pilgrim and Reisert, 1992). In a recent Dutch study, a higher prevalence of various psychiatric disorders was found in homosexual people as compared to heterosexual people. These differences seem to be gender-specific, with a higher prevalence of substance-use disorders in homosexual women and a higher prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in homosexual men, both as compared to their heterosexual counterparts.

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