By Darrell Huff
Darrell Huff runs the gamut of each popularly used form of statistic, probes things like the pattern research, the tabulation technique, the interview procedure, or the best way the implications are derived from the figures, and issues up the numerous variety of dodges that are used to idiot instead of tell.
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Extra resources for How to Lie with Statistics
You may get a fifty-fifty result, but probably you won't; your result, Uke mine, stands a good chance of being quite a ways away from fifty-fifty. ITI-ES a J ~ 4 ~j tain to come out with a result very close to half heads-a result. that is. which represents the real probability. Only when there is a substantial number of trials involved is the law of averages a useful description or prediction. How IllallY ill euough? That"s a tricky one too. It depends among other things on how large and how varied a population you are studying by sampling.
L: ~ ~~ --r~I~ RecDrd .. Rang. • • . '" V_ +:. 1. ~ , ~ ,\ ~ Recard LDws- -.. J f .. A• J J ASO.. --' CHAPTER 4 Much Ado about Practically Nothing IF YOU don't mind, we will begin by endowing you with two children. Peter and Linda (we might as well give them modish names while VI-"e're about it) have been given intelligence tests, as a great many children are in thecourse of their schooling. y be right at that. Anyway, you learn somehow that Peter's IQ is 98 and Linda's is 101. You know, of course, that the IQ is based on 100 as average or "nonnal," Aha.
I came upon another of those statements that collapse under a second look. It appeared in an advertisement by a group of electric companies in 1948. «Today, electric power is available to more than threequarters of U. S. farms... :' That sounds pretty good. Those power companies are really on the job. Of course, jf you wanted to be ornery you could paraphrase it into "Almost one-quarter of U. S. " and by using it the companies have HOW TO LIE WITH STATIS'11CS been able to say just about anything they please.