By Mark C. Porter
This guide emphasizes using sythetic membranes for separations related to commercial or municipal technique streams. the 10 chapters are authored through a number of the world's best specialists within the box of membrane technological know-how and know-how. Discussions on conception, engineering points, membrane education and common and projected purposes of a few of the membrane tactics are incorporated.
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Extra info for Handbook of Industrial Membrane Technology
Precipitation therefore occurs much slower and a sponge-like structure is formed between the fingers. Uniform and Graded Pore Structure of Skin-Type Membranes. In spongestructured, skin-type membranes, it is assumed that the diffusion of the precipitant through the skin is the rate-limiting step, leading to a more or less flat concentration profile of the precipitant in the casting solution just beneath the skin. Depending on the resistance of the skin to the flux of precipitant, the concentration profile may vary from a completely flat one (virtually no concentration gradient over the cross section of the cast polymer film) to a concentration profile showing an initially steep gradient at the beginning of precipitation which decreases as precipitation proceeds through the polymer film.
Thermal gelation is not only applicable to polymers which, because of their poor solubility, would otherwise be inaccessible to the phase inversion membrane preparation techniques; it can also be used for making microporous membranes from glass mixtures and metal alloys in combination with a leaching procedure, as indicated earlier. The Phase Separation Process and Its Relation to the Formation Mechanism of Microporous Membranes Detailed recipes given in the literature for the preparation of microporous structures from polymers, metals or glassesseem superficially very different.
Higher precipitation rates lead to finer pore structures, and lower precipitation rates lead to coarser structures. 42 The Effect of the Polymer-Solvent-Precipitant System on Membrane Structure and Properties. The effect of the polymer on membrane structure and properties is closely related to the solvent used in the casting solution and the precipitant. The solvent and the precipitant used in membrane preparation determine both the activity coefficient of the polymer in the solvent-precipitant mixture and the concentration of the polymer at the point of precipitation and solidification.