By Iqtidar Alam Khan
Gunpowder is well known as a major technological issue at the back of political or even social switch. This e-book surveys the background of gunpowder and firearms in India, tracing their arrival within the 13th century from China and within the overdue 15th century from Europe and studying the function performed by way of the Mongols and the Portuguese during this transmission. along this narrative of the diffusion of firearms, the ebook appears to be like at their influence at the nature of the neighborhood states within the 15th century and at the Mughal empire within the 16th and 17th centuries. The speculation of "gunpowder empires" complex by means of Hodgson is demonstrated by means of a examine of the improvement of muskets and the expanding efficiency of musketry. The booklet is going directly to think of the growing to be obsolescence of the Mughal firearms from the center of the 17th century onwards, as obvious within the failure of Mughal artillery opposed to the Persians at Qandahar (1652-3) and Karnal (1739). at the same time, it examines the level of the dissemination of muskets between peasant groups and relates this improvement to the becoming militancy of definite sections of the agricultural inhabitants and the following decline of the Mughal empire.
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Extra info for Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India
It is known tl,iat the strength of the non-Gujaratis became considerable only ~ger the jnductiop 9f a large nlfmber of Abyssinians and many Ottomans in fhe firs! quarter of the sixteenth century. From this it should be evident that, in 1407, the preponderance of the local elements in the nobility would have been still more marked. 4~. M. Ashraf, Life and Conditions of the People of Hindustan, p. 64-5; M. Athar Ali, The Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb, p. 63; and Itfan Habib, Essays in Indian History, pp.
E h~g. lducted into his ar~enalofnrearms. some t1me before 1526. 49 The zarb-zans could have come to Babur from_die Safavids who were·already in direct contact with the 72 Indian Response to European Gunnery: 1498-1556 Gunpowder and Firearms Portuguese after they had established their foothold at Hormuz in '1510 50 or also directly from the Ottomans who appear to·have,been using guns•of this kind since the middlJ of •the fifteenth century. o:Jmzan_sand three ~rb-zans. 54 ·. He . t"fi'e tteasu,ry for that purpose.
440-l, for, a sixteenth-century Chinese text testifying to the use of Turkish matchlocks by the Sultan ofTurfan (an Uighur prince of Xinjiang) in 151~- It was a dear indication, that Turkish matchlocks were available in Central Asia around 1519. 'That Babur'S·tufangswere possibly s~me kind of rrtatchlo~ks is also borne out bythe depiction of guns in the Hamza-nama paintings prepared during· 156Q-75. ,. Vol. 24, V. 24. See also Fig. 5 in this book. 10. For t9-e hypothesis that Bab'ur's firingi' (Frankish) and the Chinese Jo-Zang-chiclthung (Frankish Gulverine) -possibly had a ra 54 Gunpowder and Firearms Gunpowder ·Artillery in India common origin see· Iqtidar A Khan, 'Firearms in Central Asia and Iran during the Fifteenth Century and the Origins and Nature· of Firearms brought by Babur', Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 56th session, pp.