By K.-P. Seiler, J.R. Gat
To face the threats to the water offer and to take care of sustainable water administration guidelines, distinct wisdom is required at the surface-to-subsurface transformation hyperlink within the water cycle. Recharge flux is roofed during this ebook in addition to many different groundwater concerns, together with a comparability of the normal and glossy ways to figure out groundwater recharge. The authors additionally clarify intimately the destiny of groundwater recharge within the subsurface by way of hydraulic and geologic capacity, with a purpose to stimulate tailored groundwater-management strategies.
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Additional resources for Groundwater Recharge from Run-off Infiltration and Percolation
5. Monthly open area (prairie, black columns) and stand precipitation (pine forest, white columns) in the Bavarian forest. Months beginning with November and ending with October MECHANISMS AND PROCESSES OF RECHARGE 41 • Stem flow from leaf trees is smaller in the summer than in the winter season and achieves an average of 15–25% of open area precipitation; for pines it amounts all the year around to only 5% of open area precipitation. In some areas of the world, re-evaporation through forests allows air humidity to migrate deep into the continent.
During the second half of the 20th century, many dams have been constructed world wide to govern the discharge characteristic of individual catchment areas according to the local water demand in the low reach of the dam; today about one-third of continental discharge (about 15,000 km3 ) is regulated by dams. Water stored by dams suffers 3–4 times more evaporation than water stored in snow and glaciers; therefore, melting snow and glaciers are from efficiency, not from a management point of view, so valuable for water availability in water-scarce areas.
In general, surface run-off triggered by rain events is composed of an immediate, short-lasting (direct run-off; O-F and I-F in Fig. 3) and a delayed, long-lasting response (indirect run-off; B-F in Fig. 3); the latter prevents surface discharge from drying out over long periods of time. Both direct and indirect run-off relate to reservoirs with small respectively significant storage capacities: slow discharge relates to flow velocities of less than meters per day or year, whereas quick discharge refers to flow velocities of meters per second or hour.