By Wolfgang Wagner
The ebook provides an summary of winning hydrogeologic stipulations within the Arab center East including the geologic heritage. Emphasis is given to relationships among the most positive factors influencing the hydrogeologic stipulations - local geologic advancements, paleogeographic stipulations, morphology, weather and paleo-climate - and the ensuing hydrogeologic good points: formation of aquifers, distribution of significant aquifers, major groundwater circulate platforms, prevalence of renewable and fossil groundwater. mentioned information on hydraulic aquifer parameters, recharge premiums and groundwater circulation volumes are evaluated so one can arrive at attribute values less than the explicit hydrogeologic and weather conditions. the realm thought of covers nearly the Arabian Plate. details at the following nations is incorporated: Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, West financial institution and Gaza, Yemen.
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Extra info for Groundwater in the Arab Middle East
The carbonate rocks are karstified in some areas and are part of a complex aquifer system, which extends from the outcrop belt eastward and northeastward until the Euphrates and the Gulf. The Paleogene aquifer system constitutes one of the most important groundwater reservoirs in eastern Saudi Arabia and the Gulf area. The groundwater is, however, prevailingly fossil, present-day recharge is very limited according to the arid climate conditions. g. in Qatar. The Umm er Radhuma formation generally comprises a joint aquifer together with the upper part of the Cretaceous Aruma limestones, while the lower part of Aruma formation acts as aquitard separating the Umm er Radhuma–Aruma aquifer from underlying sandstone aquifers.
Marine ingressions inundated the basin zones during the Mesozoic and early Paleogene as narrow sea-arm invasions. Jurassic–Cretaceous fluviatile, epicontinental and marine sediments were deposited in graben and basin structures on the margins of the shield, such as the Marib–Jawf graben, but also in a belt of graben systems within the shield between Sada, Sanaa and Taiz (Beydoun 1991; Kruck et al. 1996). Rift movements in the Tertiary caused the break-up of the Nubo-Arabian Shield along the Gulf of Aden–Red Sea structure and the Arabian Shield was uplifted on the shoulders of the rift graben to elevations of presently up to >3,000 m asl.
The Wajid basin in the south of the Arabian Peninsula, which is covered by Paleozoic sandstones, may be considered a southern continuation of the Interior Shelf. Structural elements separating the different segments are: the Hail–Rutba arch between the Tabuk and Widyan segments, the Wadi el Batin fault between the Widyan and northern Tuwayq segments, and the central Arabian arch between the northern and southern Tuwayq segments. The Tabuk segment in the north and the Wajid segment (Wajid basin, Wajid sandstone plateau) correspond to Paleozoic intracratonic basins, which have been consolidated as structural highs with mainly Paleozoic cover.