By Aldo V. da Rosa
DSU identify III 2007-2012.
content material: Generalities --
pt. 1. warmth engines. no less than thermodynamics and of the kinetic thought of gases --
Mechanical warmth engines --
Ocean thermal strength converters --
Radio-noise turbines --
pt. 2. the realm of hydrogen. gasoline cells --
Hydrogen creation --
Hydrogen garage --
pt. three. power from the sunlight. sunlight radiation --
Photovoltaic converters --
pt. four. Wind and water. Wind strength --
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Additional info for Fundamentals of renewable energy processes
Wind generators operate with a rather small plant factor (≈ 30%) as a result of the great variability of wind velocity. Although speciﬁc data for solar plants are not available, they also suﬀer from a low utilization factor owing to the day/night cycle and the vagaries of meteorological conditions. It is of interest to know which are the main users of energy in the United States. 14) American residences account for nearly 20% of all energy used. Most of it is employed for ambient heating, an area in which considerable economy can be realized, especially through better home design and use of geothermal sources.
An additional trick must be used. Neutrons resulting from a 235 U ﬁssion are high-energy particles (some 1 MeV), and their absorption cross section is about the same for both uranium isotopes. 05 eV) happen to be absorbed much more readily by the ﬁssile uranium than by the more stable isotope. Thus, some of the emitted neutrons have to be slowed down by making them move through a low atomic mass substance called a moderator. Graphite or water will do. † Fast neutrons may be absorbed by impurities in the fuel or in the moderator.
Most of the mass values are from Richard B. Firestone. Those marked with a ♣ are from Audi and Wapstra (1993), and the one marked with a · is from a diﬀerent source. It can be seen that the precision of the numbers is very large. This is necessary because, in calculating the energy released in a nuclear reaction, one uses the small diﬀerence between large numbers, which is, of course, extremely sensitive to uncertainties in the latter. The listed values for the masses of the nucleons (the proton and the alpha in the table) are nearly the values of the masses of the corresponding atoms minus the mass the electron(s).